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Chengmai
Chéngmài County (postal: Tsingmai; simplified Chinese: 澄迈县; traditional Chinese: 澄邁縣; pinyin: Chéngmài Xiàn) is an administrative district in Hainan, China. It is one of four counties of Hainan. Its postal code is 571900. In 2002, its population was 490,800.[2]Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Jinjiang Town3 Economy 4 Demographics4.1 Longevity5 Climate 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] The first record of Chengmai County
Chengmai County
is in 110 BC, when it referred to as Guo County in one of Emperor Wu of Han's records. The county acquired its current name under the Sui Dynasty
Sui Dynasty
reorganisation of 607. It was also recorded during the Ming Dynasty. Geography[edit] Located in northwest Hainan, it is 56 km wide (east to west) and 70 km long (north to south). It has a total land area of 2067.6 km²
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County-level City
ProvincesAutonomous regions Special
Special
administrative regionsSub-provincial levelSub-provincial citiesSub-provincial autonomous prefecturesSub-provincial city districtsPrefectural level (2nd) Prefectural citiesAutonomous prefecturesLeaguesPrefectures (abolishing)Sub-prefectural-levelSub-prefectural citiesProvincial-controlled citiesProvincial-controlled countiesProvincial-controlled districtsCounty level (3rd) CountiesAutonomous countiesCounty-level ci
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Croaker Fish
See text.The Sciaenidae
Sciaenidae
are a family of fish commonly called drums or croakers in reference to the repetitive throbbing or drumming sounds they make. The family includes the weakfish, and consists of about 275 species in about 70 genera; it belongs to the order Perciformes.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Fisheries 3 Croaking mechanism3.1 Croaking in communication4 Genera and selected species 5 Timeline of genera 6 References 7 Further readingCharacteristics[edit] A sciaenid has a long dorsal fin reaching nearly to the tail, and a notch between the rays and spines of the dorsal, although the two parts are actually separate.[1] Drums are somberly coloured, usually in shades of brown, with a lateral line on each side that extends to the tip of the caudal fin. The anal fin usually has two spines, while the dorsal fins are deeply notched or separate. Most species have a rounded or pointed caudal fin. The mouth is set low and is usually inferior
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Peat
Peat
Peat
(/piːt/), also called turf (/tɜːrf/), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.[1][2] The peatland ecosystem is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet,[2] because peatland plants capture CO2 naturally released from the peat, maintaining an equilibrium. In natural peatlands, the "annual rate of biomass production is greater than the rate of decomposition", but it takes "thousands of years for peatlands to develop the deposits of 1.5 to 2.3 m [4.9 to 7.5 ft], which is the average depth of the boreal [northern] peatlands".[2] Sphagnum
Sphagnum
moss, also called peat moss, is one of the most common components in peat, although many other plants can contribute. Soils consisting primarily of peat are known as histosols
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Zinc
Zinc
Zinc
is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc
Zinc
is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States
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Aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium
or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[5] Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation
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Iron Ore
Iron
Iron
ores[1] are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe 3O 4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe 2O 3, 69.9% Fe), goethite (FeO(OH), 62.9% Fe), limonite (FeO(OH)·n(H2O), 55% Fe) or siderite (FeCO3, 48.2% Fe). Ores containing very high quantities of hematite or magnetite (greater than about 60% iron) are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces
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Kaolin
Kaolinite
Kaolinite
/ˈkeɪəlɪˌnaɪt/[4][5] is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is a layered silicate mineral, with one tetrahedral sheet of silica (SiO4) linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina (AlO6) octahedra.[6] Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are known as kaolin /ˈkeɪəlɪn/ or china clay.[7] The name "kaolin" is derived from "Gaoling" (Chinese: 高嶺; pinyin: Gāolǐng; literally: "High Ridge"), a Chinese village near Jingdezhen in southeastern China's Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province.[8] The name entered English in 1727 from the French version of the word: kaolin, following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen.[9] Kaolinite
Kaolinite
has a low shrink–swell capacity and a low cation-exchange capacity (1–15 meq/100 g)
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Manganese
Manganese
Manganese
is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese
Manganese
is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Historically, manganese is named for pyrolusite and other black minerals from the region of Magnesia in Greece, which also gave its name to magnesium and the iron ore magnetite. By the mid-18th century, Swedish-German chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it
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Silicon
Silicon
Silicon
is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. A hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table, along with carbon above it and germanium, tin, and lead below. It is rather unreactive, though less so than germanium, and has a very large chemical affinity for oxygen; as such, it was first prepared and characterized in pure form only in 1823 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Its melting and boiling points of 1414 °C and 3265 °C respectively are the second-highest among all the metalloids and nonmetals, being only surpassed by boron (carbon sublimes rather than melts at atmospheric pressure, albeit at a higher temperature than boron). Silicon
Silicon
is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust
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Fishing
Fishing
Fishing
is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish
Fish
are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping. Fishing
Fishing
may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms
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Mackerel
Mackerel
Mackerel
is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. They are found in both temperate and tropical seas, mostly living along the coast or offshore in the oceanic environment. Mackerel
Mackerel
typically have vertical stripes on their backs and deeply forked tails. Many species are restricted in their distribution ranges, and live in separate populations or fish stocks based on geography. Some stocks migrate in large schools along the coast to suitable spawning grounds, where they spawn in fairly shallow waters. After spawning they return the way they came, in smaller schools, to suitable feeding grounds often near an area of upwelling. From there they may move offshore into deeper waters and spend the winter in relative inactivity
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Redfish
Redfish is a common name for several species of fish. It is most commonly applied to certain deep-sea rockfish in the genus Sebastes, or the reef dwelling snappers in the genus Lutjanus
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Grouper
Groupers are fish of any of a number of genera in the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae, in the order Perciformes. Not all serranids are called groupers; the family also includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two large genera: Epinephelus
Epinephelus
and Mycteroperca. In addition, the species classified in the small genera Anyperidon, Cromileptes, Dermatolepis, Gracila, Saloptia, and Triso are also called groupers. Fish
Fish
in the genus Plectropomus
Plectropomus
are referred to as coralgroupers. These genera are all classified in the subfamily Epiphelinae. However, some of the hamlets (genus Alphestes), the hinds (genus Cephalopholis), the lyretails (genus Variola) and some other small genera (Gonioplectrus, Niphon, Paranthias) are also in this subfamily, and occasional species in other serranid genera have common names involving the word "grouper"
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Gold
Gold
Gold
is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold
Gold
often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium
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Pomfret
Brama Eumegistus Pteraclis Pterycombus Taractes Taractichthys XenobramaPomfrets are perciform fishes belonging to the family Bramidae. The family includes about 20 species. They are found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, and the largest species, the Atlantic
Atlantic
pomfret, Brama brama, grows up to 1 m (3.3 ft) long. Fish meat is white in color. Several species are important food sources for humans, especially Brama brama in the South Asia. The earlier form of the pomfret's name was pamflet, a word which probably ultimately comes from Portuguese pampo, referring to various fish such as the blue butterfish (Stromateus fiatola). See also[edit]Several species of butterfishes in the genus Pampus are also known as "pomfrets". Some species of pomfrets are also known as monchong, specifically in Hawaiian cuisine.[2] List of fish familiesReferences[edit]^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). "Bramidae" in FishBase
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