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Dharma
DHARMA ( ; Sanskrit : धर्म _dharma_, _ listen (help ·info ); Pali : धम्म dhamma_) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions
Indian religions
Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Sikhism and Jainism
Jainism
. There is no single word translation for _dharma_ in Western languages. In Hinduism , _dharma_ signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with _rta _, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’’. In Buddhism
Buddhism
_dharma_ means "cosmic law and order", but is also applied to the teachings of the Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy , _dhamma/dharma _ is also the term for "phenomena "
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Dharma (other)
DHARMA is a philosophical or religious concept of Indian origin. * Dharma (Hinduism) * Dharma (Buddhism) * Dharma (Jainism) * Sikh Dharma DHARMA may also refer to: * Dharmathakur , a deity worshipped by villagers in the traditional Rarh region in the present day Indian state of West Bengal * Dharm (film) , a 2007 Hindi-language Indian film directed by Bhavna Talwar * Dharma (1973 film) , a 1973 Bollywood action film directed by Chand * Dharma (1998 film) , a 1998 Tamil action film directed by K
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Ahimsa
AHIMSA IAST : _ahiṃsā_, Pāli : _avihiṃsā_) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions . The word is derived from the Sanskrit root _hiṃs_ – to strike; _hiṃsā_ is injury or harm, _a-hiṃsā_ is the opposite of this, i.e. cause no injury, do no harm. Ahimsa is also referred to as nonviolence , and it applies to all living beings—including all animals—in ancient Indian religions. Ahimsa is one of the cardinal virtues and an important tenet of Jainism , Hinduism , and Buddhism . Ahimsa is a multidimensional concept, inspired by the premise that all living beings have the spark of the divine spiritual energy; therefore, to hurt another being is to hurt oneself. Ahimsa has also been related to the notion that any violence has karmic consequences
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Ashrama (stage)
An ASHRAMA (āśrama) in Hinduism is one of four age-based life stages discussed in ancient and medieval era Indian texts. The four asramas are: Brahmacharya (student), Grihastha (householder), Vanaprastha (retired) and Sannyasa (renunciation). The Ashramas system is one facet of the Dharma
Dharma
concept in Hinduism. It is also a component of the ethical theories in Indian philosophy, where it is combined with four proper goals of human life (Purusartha ), for fulfilment, happiness and spiritual liberation. CONTENTS * 1 Ashram
Ashram
system * 2 Asrama and Purushartha * 3 Alternate classification system of life stages * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ASHRAM SYSTEMUnder the Ashram
Ashram
system, the human life was divided into four periods
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Dharmacakra
The DHARMACHAKRA ( IAST : _dharmacakra_; Pali _dhammacakka_; "Wheel of the Dharma ") is one of the Ashtamangala of Indian religions such as Jainism , Buddhism and Hinduism . It has represented the Buddhist dharma , Gautama Buddha 's teaching of the path to Nirvana , since the time of early Buddhism . It is also connected to the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path
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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari (official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts
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Pali Language
PALI (_Pāli_) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent . It is widely studied because it is the language of much of the earliest extant literature of Buddhism as collected in the _ Pāli Canon _ or _Tipiṭaka _ and is the sacred language of some religious texts of Hinduism and all texts of _Theravāda _ Buddhism
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Indian Religions
Indian religions
Indian religions
as a percentage of world population Hinduism (15%) Buddhism
Buddhism
(7.1%) Sikhism (0.35%) Jainism
Jainism
(0.06%) Other (77.49%) INDIAN RELIGIONS, sometimes also termed as DHARMIC faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent ; namely Hinduism , Jainism
Jainism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Sikhism . These religions are also all classified as Eastern religions . Although Indian religions
Indian religions
are connected through the history of India
India
, they constitute a wide range of religious communities, and are not confined to the Indian subcontinent. Evidence attesting to prehistoric religion in the Indian subcontinent derives from scattered Mesolithic rock paintings
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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered")
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists
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Sikhism
SIKHISM (/ˈsikᵻzəm/ ), or SIKHI (Punjabi : ਸਿੱਖੀ _Sikkhī_, pronounced , from _Sikh_, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic/panentheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib , include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service , striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all , and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak , the first Guru, and the ten successive Sikh gurus
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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word _jina _ (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as _Tirthankaras _, with the first being Rishabhanatha , who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal _dharma _ with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. The main religious premises of Jainism are _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _anekantavada _ ("many-sidedness"), _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment") and _asceticism _
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Untranslatability
UNTRANSLATABILITY is a property of a text, or of any utterance, in one language , for which no equivalent text or utterance can be found in another language when translated. Terms are, however, neither exclusively translatable nor exclusively untranslatable; rather, the degree of difficulty of translation depends on their nature, as well as on the translator's knowledge of the languages in question. Quite often, a text or utterance that is considered to be "untranslatable" is actually a lacuna, or lexical gap . That is, there is no one-to-one equivalence between the word, expression or turn of phrase in the source language and another word, expression or turn of phrase in the target language. A translator can, however, resort to a number of translation procedures to compensate for this
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Rta
In the Vedic religion , _ṚTA_ ( Sanskrit ऋतम् _ṛtaṃ_ "that which is properly/excellently joined; order, rule; truth") is the principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it. In the hymns of the Vedas , _Ṛta_ is described as that which is ultimately responsible for the proper functioning of the natural, moral and sacrificial orders. Conceptually, it is closely allied to the injunctions and ordinances thought to uphold it, collectively referred to as _ Dharma _, and the action of the individual in relation to those ordinances, referred to as _ Karma _ – two terms which eventually eclipsed _Ṛta_ in importance as signifying natural, religious and moral order in later Hinduism
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Buddhist Philosophy
BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia. Buddhism 's main concern has always been freedom from dukkha (unease), and the path to that ultimate freedom consists in ethical action (karma ), meditation and in direct insight (prajña ) into the nature of "things as they truly are" (yathābhūtaṃ viditvā). Indian Buddhists sought this understanding not just from the revealed teachings of the Buddha, but through philosophical analysis and rational deliberation. Buddhist thinkers in India and subsequently in East Asia have covered topics as varied as phenomenology , ethics , ontology , epistemology , logic and philosophy of time in their analysis of this path
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Phenomena
A PHENOMENON (Greek :φαινόμενον, _phainómenon_, from the verb _phainein_, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural PHENOMENA) is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences " for a sentient being, or in principle may be so. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant , who contrasted it with the noumenon . In contrast to a phenomenon, a noumenon can not be directly observed. Kant was heavily influenced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in this part of his philosophy, in which phenomenon and noumenon serve as interrelated technical terms. Far predating this, the ancient Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus also used phenomenon and noumenon as interrelated technical terms. Cloud chamber phenomena. Scientists use phenomena to refine some hypotheses and sometimes to disprove a theory
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