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Shah Jahan
MIRZA SHAHABUDDIN BAIG MUHAMMAD KHAN SHAH JAHAN (5 January 1592 – 9 May 1666) was the fifth Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
, who reigned from 1628 to 1658. He was chosen as successor to the throne after the death of his father in 1627. He was considered one of the greatest Mughals of the Timur
Timur
family. Like his grandfather, Akbar
Akbar
, he was eager to expand his vast empire. In 1658, he fell ill and was confined by his son and successor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in Agra
Agra
Fort until his death in 1666. The period of his reign was considered the golden age of Mughal architecture . Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
erected many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
at Agra
Agra
, built in 1632–1654 as a tomb for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal (1 September 1593 – 17 June 1631)
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Mughal Emperor
The MUGHAL EMPERORS were a branch of the Timurid dynasty . From the early 16th century to the early 18th they built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent , mainly corresponding to the modern countries of Bangladesh , India and Pakistan . Their power rapidly dwindled during the 18th century and the last of the emperors was deposed in 1857, with the establishment of the British Raj . The dynasty was of Asian Turco-Mongol origin from an area now part of modern-day Uzbekistan , and the emperors claimed direct descent from both Timur and Genghis Khan , through his son Chagatai Khan . Timur is generally known in the West as Tamerlane the Great
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Coronation
A CORONATION is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term generally also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia , marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise of many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included anointing the monarch with holy oil , or chrism as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible . The monarch's consort may also be crowned, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event
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Agra
AGRA (/ˈɑːɡrə/ (_ listen ); Āgrā_) is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna
Yamuna
in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, India. It is 378 kilometres (235 mi) west of the state capital, Lucknow
Lucknow
, 206 kilometres (128 mi) south of the national capital New Delhi
Delhi
and 125 kilometres (78 mi) north of Gwalior
Gwalior
. Agra
Agra
is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, and the 24th most populous in India
India

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Shahryar (mughal Prince)
SHAHRYAR (16 January 1605 – 23 January 1628) was the fifth and youngest son of the Mughal emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
. After Jahangir's death, Shahryar made an attempt to become emperor and was successful with the help of his powerful stepmother Nur Jehan , who was also his mother-in-law. However, he was only titular and suffered defeat and was killed at the orders of his victorious brother Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
. His only daughter was married to Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Ascension and death * 3 Further reading * 4 References EARLY LIFEShazada Salef ud din Muhammad Sheharyar was born a few months before his grandfather, Emperor Akbar
Akbar
's death (in 1605). His mother was a Daughter of Raja Birbal . He was the younger halfbrother of Rebel Prince Khusrau Mirza , The Drinker Muhammad Parviz
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De Facto
_DE FACTO_ (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ ), Latin for "in fact", describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally authorized. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with _de jure _ ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called the _de facto_ standard
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Jahangir
MIRZA NUR-UD-DIN BEIG MOHAMMAD KHAN SALIM, known by his imperial name Jahangir
Jahangir
(Persian for "conqueror of the world" (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627)), was the fourth Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627. Much romance has gathered around his name ( Jahangir
Jahangir
means 'conqueror of the world', 'world-conqueror' or 'world-seizer' (Jahan = world, gir the root of the Persian verb gereftan, gireftan = to seize, to grab)), and the tale of his illicit relationship with the Mughal courtesan, Anarkali , has been widely adapted into the literature, art and cinema of India. Jahangir
Jahangir
was the eldest surviving son of Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Akbar
Akbar
. Impatient for power, he revolted in 1599 while Akbar
Akbar
was engaged in the Deccan
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Aurangzeb
ABU\'L MUZAFFAR MUHI-UD-DIN MUHAMMAD (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known as AURANGZEB or by his regnal title ALAMGIR ("He who seizes the universe"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, ruling over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
to 4 million square kilometres, and he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects, with an annual yearly revenue of $450 million (more than ten times that of his contemporary Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
), or £38,624,680 (2,879,469,894 rupees) in 1690
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Lahore
LAHORE (/ləˈhɔər/ ) (Punjabi : لہور, Urdu : لاہور‎) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab . It is the second most populous city in Pakistan after Karachi , and the 32nd most populous city in the world. The city is located in the north-eastern end of Pakistan's Punjab province, near the border with the Indian state of Punjab. Lahore is ranked as a beta- world city , and is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP ) as of 2014. Lahore is the historic cultural centre of the Punjab region , and is the largest Punjabi city in the world. The city has a long history, and was once under the rule of the Hindu Shahis , Ghaznavids , Ghurids , and the Delhi Sultanate . Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire , serving as its capital city for a number of years
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Mughal Empire
The MUGHAL EMPIRE ( Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت‎, translit. _Mughliyah Salṭanat_) or MOGUL EMPIRE, self-designated as GURKANI (Persian : گورکانیان‎‎, _Gūrkāniyān_, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent , established and ruled by a Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty of Chagatai origin from Central Asia . The dynasty, though ethnically Turco-Mongol , was Persianate in culture, with local influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal empire extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan . The empire at its peak was the second largest to have existed in the Indian subcontinent , spanning 4 million square kilometres at its zenith after the Maurya Empire which spanned 5 million square kilometres
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Pakistan
Coordinates : 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اسلامی جمہوریہ پاكستان ( Urdu
Urdu
) _Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān_ _ Flag Emblem MOTTO: Īmān, Ittiḥād, Naẓm _ ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" ANTHEM: _Qaumī Tarānah _ قومی ترانہ "The National Anthem" Area controlled by Pakistan
Pakistan
shown in dark green; parts of the Kashmir
Kashmir
region (uncontrolled) shown in light green
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Agra Fort
AGRA FORT is a historical fort in the city of Agra in India. It was the main residence of the emperors of the Mughal Dynasty till 1638, when the capital was shifted from Agra to Delhi . The Agra fort is a UNESCO World Heritage site . It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal . The fort can be more accurately described as a walled city. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Layout * 3 Popular culture * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Diwan-i-Aam After the First Battle of Panipat in 1526, the victorious Babur stayed in the fort, in the palace of Ibrahim Lodi. He later built a baoli (step well) in it. His successor, Humayun , was crowned in the fort in 1530
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Taj Mahal
The TAJ MAHAL (/ˌtɑːdʒ məˈhɑːl/ , more often /ˈtɑːʒ/ ; meaning Crown of the Palace ) is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra . It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor , Shah Jahan (reigned 1628–1658), to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal . The tomb is the centrepiece of a 17-hectare (42-acre) complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years. The Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees , which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees (US$ 827 million)
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Mumtaz Mahal
MUMTAZ MAHAL ( ; meaning "the elect of the palace"; born ARJUMAND BANU) (27 April 1593 – 17 June 1631) was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 and was the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
. The UNESCO World Heritage Site , Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
in Agra
Agra
, often cited as one of the Wonders of the World , was commissioned by her husband to act as her final resting place. Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
was born Arjumand Banu Begum in Agra
Agra
to a family of Persian nobility . She was the daughter of Abu\'l-Hasan Asaf Khan , a wealthy Persian noble who held high office in the empire, and the niece of Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
, the wife of Emperor Jahangir and the power behind the emperor
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Kandahari Begum
KANDAHARI BEGUM (also spelled Qandahari Begum; 1593 – ?; also Known as Kandahari Mahal; Arabic , Urdu : قندهاری‌ بیگم‌‎; meaning "Lady from Kandahar") was the first wife of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
. By birth, she was a princess of the prominent Safavid
Safavid
dynasty of Iran (Persia) and was the youngest daughter of Safavid
Safavid
prince Sultan Muzaffar Husain Mirza Safavi, who was the son of Sultan Husain Mirza, the son of Bahram Mirza, the son of Shah Ismail I , founder of the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty of Persia
Persia

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Izz Un-Nisa Begum
IZZ-UN-NISSA BEGUM (Arabic , Urdu : عزالنساء بیگم‎) was the third wife of Emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
. She is also known by the title, AKBARABADI MAHAL (which probably indicates that she was from Akbarabad ), and commissioned the Akbarabadi Mosque in Old Delhi
Old Delhi
. CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Marriage * 3 Death * 4 Architecture * 5 References * 6 Bibliography FAMILYIzz-un-Nissa Begum
Begum
was the daughter of Mirza Iraj who held the title, Shahnawaz Khan. He was the son of Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana
Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana
, and the grandson of Bairam Khan
Bairam Khan
. Bairam Khan
Bairam Khan
was a descendent of Pir-ali Baharlu, a Black Sheep Turkoman . She had a brother Mirza Khan Manuchir
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