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Shah Jahan
Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3] (5 January 1592  – 22 January 1666),[7] better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
(Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"),[8] was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.[9] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
was widely considered to be the most competent of Emperor Jahangir's four sons and after Jahangir's death in late 1627, when a war of succession ensued, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
emerged victorious. He put to death all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor in January 1628 in Agra
Agra
under the regnal title "Shah Jahan" (which was originally given to him as a princely title). Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
is perhaps best remembered for his architectural achievements. The period of his reign is widely considered to be the golden age of Mughal architecture
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Marwar
Marwar
Marwar
(also called Jodhpur
Jodhpur
region) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan
Rajasthan
state in North Western India. It lies partly in the Thar Desert. The word 'maru' is Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for desert. In Rajasthani dialect, "wad" means a particular area. English translation of the word 'marvar' is 'the region of desert.'[1] The region includes the present-day districts of Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali and parts of Sikar
Sikar

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Coronation
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term generally also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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Rafi Ud-Darajat
Rafi may refer to: Places[edit]Rafi, Iran, a city in Khuzestan Province Rafi, Abadan, a village in Khuzestan Province Rafi, Nigeria, a Local Government Area of Niger StateOther uses[edit] Rafi (name), a name of Arabic origin Rafi (political party), an acronym for Reshimat Poalei Yisrael (Israeli Workers List) a political party in Israel during the 1960s A nickname often given to people named Rafael (or Rafaela)See also[edit]Raffi (other) R.A.F.I
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Regnal Name
A regnal name, or reign name, is a name used by some monarchs and popes during their reigns, and used subsequently to refer to them. Since ancient times, monarchs have frequently, but not always, chosen to use a different name from their original secular name when they accede to the monarchy. Often their original secular names follows naming customs of their countries of origin. The regnal name is usually followed by a regnal number (ordinal), usually written as a Roman numeral
Roman numeral
(VI rather than 6), to provide a unique identification for that monarch among other monarchs of that realm. In some cases, the monarch has more than one regnal name, but the regnal number is based on only one of those names, for example Charles X Gustav of Sweden, George Tupou V
George Tupou V
of Tonga
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Kandahari Begum
Kandahār (/ˈkændəˌhɑːr/) or Qandahār (Pashto: کندهار‎; Dari: قندهار‎; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.[1] Formerly called Alexandria Arachosia, the city is named after Alexander
Alexander
the Great, who founded it in 329 BC around an ancient Arachosian town.[2][3] Kandahar
Kandahar
is located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of 1,010 m (3,310 ft). It is the capital of Kandahar
Kandahar
Province, and also the center of the larger cultural region called Loy Kandahar. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak
Mirwais Hotak
made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar
Kandahar
into the capital of the Hotak dynasty
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Rajput
Rajput
Rajput
(from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
raja-putra, "son of a king") is a caste from the Indian subcontinent. The term Rajput
Rajput
covers various patrilineal clans historically associated with warriorhood: several clans claim Rajput status, although not all claims are universally accepted. The term "Rajput" acquired its present meaning only in the 16th century, although it is also anachronistically used to describe the earlier lineages that emerged in northern India from 6th century onwards. In the 11th century, the term "rajaputra" appeared as a non-hereditary designation for royal officials. Gradually, the Rajputs emerged as a social class comprising people from a variety of ethnic and geographical backgrounds
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Muhammad Shah
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad Shah[1] (born Roshan Akhtar)[1] (7 August 1702 – 26 April 1748)[1] was Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
from 1719 to 1748.[3] He was son of Khujista Akhtar, the fourth son of Bahadur Shah I. With the help of the Sayyid brothers, he ascended the throne at the young age of 17. He later got rid of them with the help of Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
– Syed Hussain Ali Khan was murdered at Fatehpur Sikri in 1720 and Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha was fatally poisoned in 1722.[4] Muhammad Shah was a great patron of the arts, including musical, cultural and administrative developments. His pen-name was Sada Rangila ("ever joyous") and he is often referred to as " Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
Rangila".[5] Although he was a patron of the arts, Muhammad Shah's reign was marked by rapid and irreversible decline of the Mughal Empire
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Gauhara Begum
Gauhara Begum (17 June 1631 – 1706) was a Mughal princess and the fourteenth and youngest child of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal.[1] Her mother died giving birth to her. Gauhara, however, survived the childbirth and lived for another 75 years. Little is known about her and whether she was involved in the war of succession for her father's throne. Gauhara died in 1706, at the age of 75, from natural causes. In popular culture[edit]Gauhara Begum is a principal character in Ruchir Gupta's novel Mistress of the Throne (2014).References[edit]^ Tillotson, Giles (2008). Taj Mahal. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 31
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Jagat Gosaini
Jagat Gosain (Persian: جگت گوسین‎; died 19 April 1619) meaning 'Mistress of the World',[1] was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire as the wife of Mughal emperor Jahangir and the mother of his successor, the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.[2][3] She is also known as Jodh Bai[4][5] and was given the posthumous title of Bilqis Makani.[6][7] By birth, she was a Rajput princess of Marwar (present-day Jodhpur) and was the daughter of Raja Udai Singh (popularly known as Mota Raja), the Rathore ruler of Marwar.[8][9]Contents1 Family 2 Marriage to Jahangir 3 Death 4 In popular culture 5 References 6 External links 7 BibliographyFamily[edit] Known most popularly as Jodh Bai,[10] the Jodhpur princess,[11] Jagat Gosain belonged to the Rathore clan of Rajputs and was a daughter of Raja Udai Singh,[5] the ruler of Marwar (present-day Jodhpur).[12] Udai Singh was popularly known by the sobriquet Mota Raja (the fat king).[13] Her grandfather was Maldeo Rathore,[14] und
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Farrukhsiyar
Abu'l Muzaffar Muin ud-din Muhammad Shah
Muhammad Shah
Farrukh-siyar Alim Akbar
Akbar
Sani Wala Shan Padshah-i-bahr-u-bar (Shahid-i-Mazlum), or Farrukhsiyar
Farrukhsiyar
(20 August 1685 – 19 April 1719), was the Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
from 1713 to 1719 after he murdered Jahandar Shah.[1] Reportedly a handsome man who was easily swayed by his advisers, he lacked the ability, knowledge and character to rule independently. Farrukhsiyar
Farrukhsiyar
was the son of Azim-ush-Shan
Azim-ush-Shan
(the second son of emperor Bahadur Shah I) and Sahiba Nizwan. His reign saw the primacy of the Sayyid brothers, who became the effective power behind the facade of Mughal rule
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