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Beijing
Beijing
(/beɪˈdʒɪŋ/;[9] Mandarin: [pèi.tɕíŋ] ( listen)), formerly romanized as Peking,[10] is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a direct-controlled municipality under the national government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts.[11] Beijing
Beijing
Municipality is surrounded by Hebei
Hebei
Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji
Jingjinji
metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.[12] As a city combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is a megacity rich in history, exemplified in its global influence in politics, economy, education, history, culture, and technology. Beijing
Beijing
is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai
Shanghai
and is the nation's political, cultural, and educational center.[13] It is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and is a major hub for the national highway, expressway, railway, and high-speed rail networks. The Beijing
Beijing
Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010,[14] and, as of 2016[update], the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world, after Shanghai's subway system. The city's history dates back three millennia. As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing
Beijing
has been the political center of the country for much of the past eight centuries.[15] With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing
Beijing
was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital. Beijing
Beijing
was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A.D.[16] The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, temples, parks, gardens, tombs, walls and gates.[17] Its art treasures and universities have made it center of culture and art in China.[17] Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural centre of an area as immense as China."[18] Beijing
Beijing
has seven UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites – the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs, Zhoukoudian, as well as parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, all popular locations for tourism.[19] Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, and hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. The city hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
and was chosen to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, making it the first city to ever host both Winter and Summer Olympics.[20] Many of Beijing's 91 universities[21] consistently rank among the best in China, of which Peking University
Peking University
and Tsinghua University
Tsinghua University
are ranked in the top 60 universities of the world.[22] In 2015, 52 companies of the Fortune Global 500 company headquarters were located in Beijing, more than any other city in the world,[23] including state-owned enterprises State Grid, China
China
National Petroleum, and Sinopec Group, ranked 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, respectively.[24] Beijing
Beijing
CBD is quickly becoming the center for Beijing's economic expansion, rapid modernization, and radically changing skyline, with the ongoing or recently completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun
Zhongguancun
area is also known as China's Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
and China's center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship.[25] According to the 2016 InterNations Expat Insider Survey, Beijing
Beijing
ranked first in Asia in the subcategory "Personal Finance Index," a measure of expats' salaries versus cost of living in the city.[26] Expats live primarily in urban districts such as Dongcheng and Chaoyang in the east, or in suburban districts such as Shunyi.[27]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Early Imperial China 2.3 Ming dynasty 2.4 Qing dynasty 2.5 Republic of China 2.6 People's Republic of China

3 Geography

3.1 Cityscape 3.2 Architecture 3.3 Climate 3.4 Environmental problems

3.4.1 Air quality

3.4.1.1 Readings

3.4.2 Dust storms

4 Politics and government

4.1 Administrative divisions

4.1.1 Towns 4.1.2 Neighborhoods

4.2 Judiciary and procuracy 4.3 Diplomatic missions

5 Economy

5.1 Sector composition 5.2 Economic zones

6 Demographics

6.1 Metropolitan area

7 Culture

7.1 Places of interest

8 Religion

8.1 Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
and Taoism 8.2 Buddhism 8.3 Islam 8.4 Christianity

9 Media

9.1 Television and radio 9.2 Press

10 Sports

10.1 Events 10.2 Venues 10.3 Clubs

11 Transportation

11.1 Rail and high-speed rail 11.2 Roads and expressways 11.3 Air 11.4 Public transit 11.5 Taxi 11.6 Bicycles

12 Defense and aerospace 13 Nature and wildlife 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Etymology[edit] See also: Names of Beijing Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing
Beijing
has had numerous other names. The name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital" (from the Chinese characters
Chinese characters
北 for north and 京 for capital), was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
to distinguish the city from Nanjing
Nanjing
(the "Southern Capital").[28] The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin. An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries.[29] Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng,[30] prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation.[31] Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing
Beijing
Capital International Airport, with IATA
IATA
Code PEK, and Peking University, still use the former romanization. The single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing
Beijing
is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing
Beijing
is "BJ".[32] History[edit] Main article: History of Beijing Early history[edit] The earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing
Beijing
municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill
Dragon Bone Hill
near the village of Zhoukoudian
Zhoukoudian
in Fangshan District, where Peking Man
Peking Man
lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago. Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
also lived there more recently, about 27,000 years ago.[33] Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing. The first walled city in Beijing
Beijing
was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen
Guang'anmen
area in the south of Xicheng District.[34] This settlement was later conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital.[35] Early Imperial China[edit]

The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.

After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region.[1] During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan
Gongsun Zan
and Yuan Shao
Yuan Shao
before falling to Cao Cao's Wei Kingdom. The AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
period when northern China
China
was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was briefly the capital of the Xianbei
Xianbei
Former Yan
Former Yan
Kingdom.[36] After China
China
was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng, also known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal. Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion
An-Shi Rebellion
and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own short-lived Yan dynasties and called the city Yanjing, or the "Yan Capital." Also in the Tang dynasty, the city's name Jicheng was replaced by Youzhou
Youzhou
or Yanjing. In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the entire northern frontier to the Khitan Liao dynasty, which treated the city as Nanjing, or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital", Shangjing (modern Baarin Left Banner
Baarin Left Banner
in Inner Mongolia). Some of the oldest surviving structures in Beijing
Beijing
date to the Liao period, including the Tianning Pagoda.

Miaoying Temple
Miaoying Temple
and its White Stupa in Dadu which was built by Kublai Khan

The Liao fell to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1122, which gave the city to the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
and then retook it in 1125 during its conquest of northern China. In 1153, the Jurchen Jin made Beijing
Beijing
their "Central Capital", or Zhongdu.[1] The city was besieged by Genghis Khan's invading Mongolian army in 1213 and razed to the ground two years later.[37] Two generations later, Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
ordered the construction of Dadu (or Daidu to the Mongols, commonly known as Khanbaliq), a new capital for his Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
to the northeast of the Zhongdu ruins. The construction took from 1264 to 1293,[1][37][38] but greatly enhanced the status of a city on the northern fringe of China
China
proper. The city was centered on the Drum Tower slightly to the north of modern Beijing
Beijing
and stretched from the present-day Chang'an Avenue
Chang'an Avenue
to the northern part of Line 10 subway. Remnants of the Yuan rammed earth wall still stand and are known as the Tucheng.[39] Ming dynasty[edit]

One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, which was built by Emperor Yongle
Emperor Yongle
in Ming dynasty.

In 1368, soon after declaring the new Hongwu era of the Ming dynasty, the rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang
Zhu Yuanzhang
sent an army to Khanbaliq
Khanbaliq
and conquered it.[40] Since the Yuan continued to occupy Shangdu and Mongolia, however, Dadu was renamed to Beiping
Beiping
as used to supply the military garrisons in the area.[41] And under the Hongwu Emperor's feudal policies it was given to Zhu Di, one of his sons, who was created "Prince of Yan". The early death of Zhu Yuanzhang's heir led to a succession struggle on his death, one that ended with the victory of Zhu Di
Zhu Di
and the declaration of the new Yongle era. Since his harsh treatment of the Ming capital Yingtian (modern Nanjing) alienated many there, he established his fief as a new co-capital. The city of Beiping
Beiping
became Beijing
Beijing
(northern capital) or Shuntian[42] in 1403.[28] The construction of the new imperial residence, the Forbidden City, took from 1406 to 1420;[37] this period was also responsible for several other of the modern city's major attractions, such as the Temple of Heaven[43] and Tian'anmen. On 28 October 1420, the city was officially designated the capital of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in the same year that the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
was completed.[44] Beijing
Beijing
became the empire's primary capital and Yingtian, also called Nanjing
Nanjing
(southern capital), became the co-capital. (A 1425 order by Zhu Di's son, the Hongxi Emperor, to return the primary capital to Nanjing
Nanjing
was never carried out: he died, probably of a heart attack, the next month. He was buried, like almost every Ming emperor to follow him, in an elaborate necropolis to Beijing's north.) By the 15th century, Beijing
Beijing
had essentially taken its current shape. The Ming city wall continued to serve until modern times, when it was pulled down and the 2nd Ring Road
2nd Ring Road
was built in its place.[45] It is generally believed that Beijing
Beijing
was the largest city in the world for most of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.[46] The first known church was constructed by Catholics in 1652 at the former site of Matteo Ricci's chapel; the modern Nantang Cathedral was later built upon the same site.[47] The capture of Beijing
Beijing
by Li Zicheng's peasant army in 1644 ended the dynasty, but he and his Shun court abandoned the city without a fight when the Manchu army of Prince Dorgon
Dorgon
arrived 40 days later.

Qing dynasty[edit]

Summer Palace
Summer Palace
is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area

Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906

Dorgon
Dorgon
established the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
as a direct successor of the Ming (delegitimising Li Zicheng
Li Zicheng
and his followers)[48] and Beijing
Beijing
became China's sole capital.[49] The Qing emperors made some modifications to the Imperial residence but, in large part, the Ming buildings and the general layout remained unchanged. Facilities for Manchu worship were introduced, but the Qing also continued the traditional state rituals. Signage was bilingual or Chinese. This early Qing Beijing
Beijing
later formed the setting for the Chinese novel Dream of the Red Chamber. Northwest of the city, Qing emperors built several large palatial gardens including the Old Summer Palace
Summer Palace
and the Summer Palace. During the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces captured the city, looting and burning the Old Summer Palace
Summer Palace
in 1860. Under the Convention of Peking
Convention of Peking
ending that war, Western powers for the first time secured the right to establish permanent diplomatic presences within the city. In 1900, the attempt by the "Boxers" to eradicate this presence, as well as Chinese Christian converts, led to Beijing's reoccupation by foreign powers.[50] During the fighting, several important structures were destroyed, including the Hanlin Academy
Hanlin Academy
and the (new) Summer Palace.

Republic of China[edit]

A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
was displayed above Tiananmen
Tiananmen
Gate after WWII.

The fomenters of the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
of 1911 sought to replace Qing rule with a republic and leaders like Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
originally intended to return the capital to Nanjing. After the Qing general Yuan Shikai forced the abdication of the last Qing emperor and ensured the success of the revolution, the revolutionaries accepted him as president of the new Republic of China. Yuan maintained his capital at Beijing
Beijing
and quickly consolidated power, declaring himself emperor in 1915. His death less than a year later[51] left China
China
under the control of the warlords commanding the regional armies. Following the success of the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition, the capital was formally removed to Nanjing
Nanjing
in 1928. On 28 June the same year, Beijing's name was returned to Beiping
Beiping
(written at the time as "Peiping").[13][52] On July 7, 1937, the 29th Army and the Japanese army in China exchanged fire at the Marco Polo Bridge
Marco Polo Bridge
near the Wanping Fortress southwest of the city. The Marco Polo Bridge
Marco Polo Bridge
Incident triggered the Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II
World War II
as it is known in China. During the war,[13] Beiping
Beiping
fell to Japan
Japan
on 29 July 1937[53] and was made the seat of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state that ruled the ethnic-Chinese portions of Japanese-occupied northern China.[54] This government was later merged into the larger Wang Jingwei government based in Nanjing.[55]

People's Republic of China[edit]

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949

In the final phases of the Chinese Civil War, the People's Liberation Army seized control of the city peacefully on 31 January 1949 in the course of the Pingjin Campaign. On 1 October that year, Mao Zedong announced the creation of the People's Republic of China
China
from atop Tian'anmen. He restored the name of the city, as the new capital, to Beijing,[56] a decision that had been reached by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference just a few days earlier. In the 1950s, the city began to expand beyond the old walled city and its surrounding neighborhoods, with heavy industries in the west and residential neighborhoods in the north. Many areas of the Beijing
Beijing
city wall were torn down in the 1960s to make way for the construction of the Beijing Subway
Beijing Subway
and the 2nd Ring Road.

A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.

During the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
from 1966 to 1976, the Red Guard movement began in Beijing
Beijing
and the city's government fell victim to one of the first purges. By the fall of 1966, all city schools were shut down and over a million Red Guards from across the country gathered in Beijing
Beijing
for eight rallies in Tian'anmen
Tian'anmen
Square with Mao.[57] In April 1976, a large public gathering of Beijing
Beijing
residents against the Gang of Four and the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in Tiananmen
Tiananmen
Square was forcefully suppressed. In October 1976, the Gang was arrested in Zhongnanhai
Zhongnanhai
and the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
came to an end. In December 1978, the Third Plenum of the 11th Party Congress in Beijing
Beijing
under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
reversed the verdicts against victims of the Cultural Revolution and instituted the "policy of reform and opening up." Since the early 1980s, the urban area of Beijing
Beijing
has expanded greatly with the completion of the 2nd Ring Road
2nd Ring Road
in 1981 and the subsequent addition of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Ring Roads.[58][59] According to one 2005 newspaper report, the size of newly developed Beijing
Beijing
was one-and-a-half times larger than before.[60] Wangfujing
Wangfujing
and Xidan
Xidan
have developed into flourishing shopping districts,[61] while Zhongguancun has become a major center of electronics in China.[62] In recent years, the expansion of Beijing
Beijing
has also brought to the forefront some problems of urbanization, such as heavy traffic, poor air quality, the loss of historic neighborhoods, and a significant influx of migrant workers from less-developed rural areas of the country.[63] Beijing has also been the location of many significant events in recent Chinese history, principally the Tiananmen
Tiananmen
Square protests of 1989.[64] The city has also hosted major international events, including the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
and the 2015 World Championships in Athletics.[65]

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Beijing

Landsat 7
Landsat 7
Satellite image of Beijing
Beijing
Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown

Jingshan, the highest point in the old walled city of Beijing.

Remnants of the Great Wall
Great Wall
of China
China
in the mountains north of the city.

Beijing
Beijing
is situated at the northern tip of the roughly triangular North China
China
Plain, which opens to the south and east of the city. Mountains to the north, northwest and west shield the city and northern China's agricultural heartland from the encroaching desert steppes. The northwestern part of the municipality, especially Yanqing County and Huairou
Huairou
District, are dominated by the Jundu Mountains, while the western part is framed by Xishan or the Western Hills. The Great Wall
Great Wall
of China
China
across the northern part of Beijing
Beijing
Municipality was built on the rugged topography to defend against nomadic incursions from the steppes. Mount Dongling, in the Western Hills
Western Hills
and on the border with Hebei, is the municipality's highest point, with an altitude of 2,303 metres (7,556 ft). Major rivers flowing through the municipality, including the Chaobai, Yongding, Juma, are all tributaries in the Hai River
Hai River
system, and flow in a southeasterly direction. The Miyun
Miyun
Reservoir, on the upper reaches of the Chaobai River, is the largest reservoir within the municipality. Beijing
Beijing
is also the northern terminus of the Grand Canal to Hangzhou, which was built over 1,400 years ago as a transportation route, and the South–North Water Transfer Project, constructed in the past decade to bring water from the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
basin. The urban area of Beijing, on the plains in the south-central of the municipality with elevation of 40 to 60 metres (130–200 feet), occupies a relatively small but expanding portion of the municipality's area. The city spreads out in concentric ring roads. The Second Ring Road traces the old city walls and the Sixth Ring Road connects satellite towns in the surrounding suburbs. Tian'anmen
Tian'anmen
and Tian'anmen
Tian'anmen
Square are at the center of Beijing, directly to the south of the Forbidden City, the former residence of the emperors of China. To the west of Tian'anmen
Tian'anmen
is Zhongnanhai, the residence of China's current leaders. Chang'an Avenue, which cuts between Tiananmen
Tiananmen
and the Square, forms the city's main east-west axis. Cityscape[edit]

The skyline of the Imperial Palace, viewed from the Jingshan Hill

Architecture[edit] See also: List of tallest buildings in Beijing Three styles of architecture are predominant in urban Beijing. First, there is the traditional architecture of imperial China, perhaps best exemplified by the massive Tian'anmen
Tian'anmen
(Gate of Heavenly Peace), which remains the People's Republic of China's trademark edifice, the Forbidden City, the Imperial Ancestral Temple
Imperial Ancestral Temple
and the Temple of Heaven. Next, there is what is sometimes referred to as the "Sino-Sov" style, with structures tending to be boxy and sometimes poorly constructed, which were built between the 1950s and the 1970s.[66] Finally, there are much more modern architectural forms, most noticeably in the area of the Beijing CBD
Beijing CBD
in east Beijing
Beijing
such as the new CCTV Headquarters, in addition to buildings in other locations around the city such as the Beijing National Stadium
Beijing National Stadium
and National Center for the Performing Arts. Since 2007, buildings in Beijing
Beijing
have received the CTBUH Skyscraper Award for best overall tall building twice, for the Linked Hybrid building in 2009 and the CCTV Headquarters
CCTV Headquarters
in 2013. The CTBUH Skyscraper award for best tall overall building is given to only one building around the world every year. In the early 21st century, Beijing
Beijing
has witnessed tremendous growth of new building constructions, exhibiting various modern styles from international designers, most pronounced in the CBD region. A mixture of both 1950s design and neofuturistic style of architecture can be seen at the 798 Art Zone, which mixes the old with the new. Beijing's current completed tallest building is the 330-meter China
China
World Trade Center Tower III, but will be surpassed by the 528-meter China
China
Zun in 2018 when it is completed. Both buildings are in the Beijing
Beijing
CBD. Beijing
Beijing
is famous for its siheyuans, a type of residence where a common courtyard is shared by the surrounding buildings. Among the more grand examples are the Prince Gong Mansion
Prince Gong Mansion
and Residence of Soong Ching-ling. These courtyards are usually connected by alleys called hutongs. The hutongs are generally straight and run east to west so that doorways face north and south for good Feng Shui. They vary in width; some are so narrow only a few pedestrians can pass through at a time. Once ubiquitous in Beijing, siheyuans and hutongs are rapidly disappearing,[67] as entire city blocks of hutongs are replaced by high-rise buildings.[68] Residents of the hutongs are entitled to live in the new buildings in apartments of at least the same size as their former residences. Many complain, however, that the traditional sense of community and street life of the hutongs cannot be replaced,[69] and these properties are often government owned.[70] Climate[edit] Beijing
Beijing
has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa), characterized by higher humidity in the summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and colder, windier, drier winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone.[71] Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
across the Mongolian steppe, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. Autumn, like Spring, is a season of transition and minimal precipitation. The monthly daily average temperature in January is −3.7 °C (25.3 °F), while in July it is 26.2 °C (79.2 °F). Precipitation averages around 570 mm (22 in) annually, with close to three-fourths of that total falling from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 47% in July to 65% in January and February, the city receives 2,671 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −27.4 °C (−17.3 °F) on 22 February 1966 to 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) on 24 July 1999 (unofficial record of 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) was set on 15 June 1942).[72][73]

Climate data for Beijing
Beijing
(normals 1971–2000, extremes 1951–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 19.8 (67.6) 29.5 (85.1) 33.5 (92.3) 41.1 (106) 40.6 (105.1) 41.9 (107.4) 38.3 (100.9) 35.0 (95) 31.0 (87.8) 23.3 (73.9) 19.5 (67.1) 41.9 (107.4)

Average high °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 5.0 (41) 11.6 (52.9) 20.3 (68.5) 26.0 (78.8) 30.2 (86.4) 30.9 (87.6) 29.7 (85.5) 25.8 (78.4) 19.1 (66.4) 10.1 (50.2) 3.7 (38.7) 17.9 (64.1)

Average low °C (°F) −8.4 (16.9) −5.6 (21.9) 0.4 (32.7) 7.9 (46.2) 13.6 (56.5) 18.8 (65.8) 22.0 (71.6) 20.8 (69.4) 14.8 (58.6) 7.9 (46.2) 0.0 (32) −5.8 (21.6) 7.2 (45.0)

Record low °C (°F) −22.8 (−9) −27.4 (−17.3) −15 (5) −3.2 (26.2) 2.5 (36.5) 9.8 (49.6) 15.3 (59.5) 11.4 (52.5) 3.7 (38.7) −3.5 (25.7) −12.3 (9.9) −18.3 (−0.9) −27.4 (−17.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.7 (0.106) 4.9 (0.193) 8.3 (0.327) 21.2 (0.835) 34.2 (1.346) 78.1 (3.075) 185.2 (7.291) 159.7 (6.287) 45.5 (1.791) 21.8 (0.858) 7.4 (0.291) 2.8 (0.11) 571.8 (22.51)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.8 2.3 3.3 4.3 5.8 9.7 13.6 12.0 7.6 5.0 3.5 1.7 70.6

Average relative humidity (%) 44 44 46 46 53 61 75 77 68 61 57 49 56.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 194.1 194.7 231.8 251.9 283.4 261.4 212.4 220.9 232.1 222.1 185.3 180.7 2,670.8

Percent possible sunshine 65 65 63 64 64 59 47 52 63 64 62 62 60

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration [74], China
China
Meteorological Data Sharing Service System[75], all-time record high[73], May record high[76]

Environmental problems[edit] Beijing
Beijing
has a long history of environmental problems.[77] Between 2000 and 2009 Beijing's urban extent quadrupled, which not only strongly increased the extent of anthropogenic emissions, but also changed the meteorological situation fundamentally, even if emissions of human society are not included. For example, surface albedo, wind speed and humidity near the surface were decreased, whereas ground and near-surface air temperatures, vertical air dilution and ozone levels were increased.[78] Because of the combined factors of urbanization and pollution caused by burning of fossil fuel, Beijing
Beijing
is often affected by serious environmental problems, which lead to health issues of many inhabitants. In 2013 heavy smog struck Beijing
Beijing
and most parts of northern China, in total 600 million people. After this "pollution shock" air pollution became an important economic and social concern in China. After that the government of Beijing announced measures to reduce air pollution, for example by lowering the share of coal from 24% in 2012 to 10% in 2017, while the national government ordered heavily polluting vehicles to be removed from 2015 to 2017 and increased its efforts to transition the energy system to clean sources.[79] Air quality[edit] Joint research between American and Chinese researchers in 2006 concluded that much of the city's pollution comes from surrounding cities and provinces. On average 35–60% of the ozone can be traced to sources outside the city. Shandong
Shandong
Province and Tianjin Municipality have a "significant influence on Beijing's air quality",[80] partly due to the prevailing south/southeasterly flow during the summer and the mountains to the north and northwest.

Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.

In preparation for the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
and to fulfill promises to clean up the city's air, nearly 17 billion USD was spent.[81] Beijing
Beijing
implemented a number of air improvement schemes for the duration of the Games, including halting work at all construction sites, closing many factories in Beijing
Beijing
permanently, temporarily shutting industry in neighboring regions, closing some gas stations,[82] and cutting motor traffic by half by limiting drivers to odd or even days (based on their license plate numbers),[83] reducing bus and subway fares, opening new subway lines, and banning high-emission vehicles.[84][85] The city further assembled 3,800 natural gas-powered buses, one of the largest fleets in the world.[81] Beijing
Beijing
became the first city in China
China
to require the Chinese equivalent to the Euro 4 emission standard.[86] Coal burning accounts for about 40% of the PM 2.5 in Beijing
Beijing
and is also the chief source of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.[87] Since 2012, the city has been converting coal-fired power stations to burn natural gas[88] and aims to cap annual coal consumption at 20 million tons. In 2011, the city burned 26.3 million tons of coal, 73% of which for heating and power generation and the remainder for industry.[88] Much of the city's air pollutants are emitted by neighboring regions.[87] Coal consumption in neighboring Tianjin
Tianjin
is expected to increase from 48 to 63 million tons from 2011 to 2015.[89] Hebei
Hebei
Province burned over 300 million tons of coal in 2011, more than all of Germany, of which only 30% were used for power generation and a considerable portion for steel and cement making.[90] Power plants in the coal-mining regions of Shanxi, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and Shaanxi, where coal consumption has tripled since 2000, and Shandong
Shandong
also contribute to air pollution in Beijing.[87] Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei
Hebei
and Inner Mongolia, respectively rank from first to fourth, among Chinese provinces by coal consumption.[89] There were four major coal-fired power plants in the city to provide electricity as well as heating during the winter. The first one (Gaojing Thermal Power Plant) was shut down in 2014.[91][92] Another two were shut in March 2015. The last one (Huaneng Thermal Power Plant) would be shut in 2016.[91] Between 2013 and 2017, the city planned to reduce 13 million tons of coal consumption and cap coal consumption to 15 million tons in 2015.[91] The government sometimes uses cloud-seeding measures to increase the likelihood of rain showers in the region to clear the air prior to large events, such as prior to the 60th anniversary parade in 2009[93] as well as to combat drought conditions in the area. More recently, however, the government has increased its usage of such measures as closing factories temporarily and implementing greater restrictions for cars on the road, as in the case of "APEC blue" and "parade blue," short periods during and immediately preceding the APEC China
China
2014 and the 2015 China
China
Victory Day Parade, respectively.[94] During and prior to these events, Beijing's air quality improved dramatically, only to fall back to unhealthy levels shortly after. Beijing
Beijing
air quality is often poor, especially in winter. In mid-January 2013, Beijing's air quality was measured on top of the city's US embassy at a PM2.5 density of 755 micrograms per cubic meter, which went off the US Environmental Protection Agency's air quality index. It was widely reported, originally through a Twitter account, that the category was "crazy bad". This was later changed to "beyond index".[95] On 8 and 9 December 2015 Beijing
Beijing
had its first smog alert which shut down a majority of the industry and other commercial businesses in the city.[96] Later in the month another smog "red alert" was issued.[97] According to Beijing's environmental protection bureau's announcement in November 2016, starting from 2017 highly polluting old cars wil be banned from being driven whenever Smog
Smog
"red alerts" are issued in the city or neighboring regions.[98] Readings[edit] Due to Beijing's high-level of air pollution, there are various readings by different sources on the subject. Daily pollution readings at 27 monitoring stations around the city are reported on the website of the Beijing
Beijing
Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB).[99] The American Embassy of Beijing
Beijing
also reports hourly fine particulate (PM2.5) and ozone levels on Twitter.[100] Since the BJEPB and US Embassy measure different pollutants according to different criteria, the pollution levels and the impact to human health reported by the BJEPB are often lower than that reported by the US Embassy.[100]

Air pollution
Air pollution
in Beijing
Beijing
in 2016, measured by Air Quality Index

   Severely Polluted    Heavily Polluted    Moderately Polluted

   Lightly Polluted    Good   Excellent

Dust storms[edit] Dust from the erosion of deserts in northern and northwestern China results in seasonal dust storms that plague the city; the Beijing Weather Modification Office sometimes artificially induces rainfall to fight such storms and mitigate their effects.[101] In the first four months of 2006 alone, there were no fewer than eight such storms.[102] In April 2002, one dust storm alone dumped nearly 50,000 tons of dust onto the city before moving on to Japan
Japan
and Korea.[103] Politics and government[edit] Main article: Politics of Beijing Municipal government is regulated by the local Communist Party of China
China
(CPC), led by the Beijing
Beijing
CPC Secretary
CPC Secretary
(Chinese: 北京市委书记). The local CPC issues administrative orders, collects taxes, manages the economy, and directs a standing committee of the Municipal People's Congress in making policy decisions and overseeing the local government. Government officials include the mayor (Chinese: 市长) and vice-mayor. Numerous bureaus focus on law, public security, and other affairs. Additionally, as the capital of China, Beijing
Beijing
houses all of the important national governmental and political institutions, including the National People's Congress.[104] Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Beijing
List of administrative divisions of Beijing
and List of township-level divisions of Beijing Beijing
Beijing
Municipality currently comprises 16 administrative county-level subdivisions including 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. On 1 July 2010, Chongwen and Xuanwu were merged into Dongcheng and Xicheng, respectively. On 13 November 2015 Miyun
Miyun
and Yanqing were upgraded to districts.

Administrative divisions of Beijing

Dongcheng Xicheng Chaoyang Haidian Fengtai Shijingshan Mentougou Fangshan Tongzhou Shunyi Changping Daxing Pinggu Huairou Yanqing Miyun

Color key

     Inner city
Inner city
inside the 2nd Ring Road
2nd Ring Road
(former city walls)      Urban area
Urban area
between the 2nd and 5th Ring Road      Inner suburbs linked by the 6th Ring Road      Outer suburbs areas within city limits.

Division code[105] Division Area in km2[106] Population 2010[107] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[108]

Subdistricts Towns [n 1] Townships [n 2] Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages

110000 Beijing 16411.0 19,612,368 Dongcheng / Tongzhou 100000 128 167 19 4 2538 3857

110101 Dongcheng 40.6 919,253 Jingshan Subdistrict 100000 17       216  

110102 Xicheng 46.5 1,243,315 Jinrong Street Subdistrict 100000 15       259  

110105 Chaoyang 470.8 3,545,137 Chaowai Subdistrict 100000 21   20 1 358 5

110106 Fengtai 304.2 2,112,162 Fengtai Subdistrict 100000 14 4 3   254 73

110107 Shijingshan 89.8 616,083 Lugu Subdistrict 100000 9       130  

110108 Haidian 426.0 3,280,670 Haidian Subdistrict 100000 22 2 5   603 84

110109 Mentougou 1331.3 290,476 Dayu Subdistrict 102300 4 9     124 179

110111 Fangshan 1866.7 944,832 Gongchen Subdistrict 102400 3 14 6   108 462

110112 Tongzhou 870.0 1,184,256 Beiyuan Subdistrict 101100 4 10   1 40 480

110113 Shunyi 980.0 876,620 Shengli Subdistrict 101300 6 19     61 449

110114 Changping 1430.0 1,660,501 Chengbei Subdistrict 102200 2 15     180 303

110115 Daxing 1012.0 1,365,112 Xingfeng Subdistrict 102600 3 14 2   64 547

110116 Huairou 2557.3 372,887 Longshan Subdistrict 101400 2 12 2 2 27 286

110117 Pinggu 1075.0 415,958 Binhe Subdistrict 101200 2 14 2   23 275

110118 Miyun 2335.6 467,680 Gulou Subdistrict 101500 2 18     57 338

110119 Yanqing 1980.0 317,426 Rulin Subdistrict 102100 3 11 4   34 376

Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations

English Chinese Pinyin

Beijing
Beijing
Municipality 北京市 Běijīng Shì

Dongcheng District 东城区 Dōngchéng Qū

Xicheng District 西城区 Xīchéng Qū

Chaoyang District 朝阳区 Cháoyáng Qū

Fengtai District 丰台区 Fēngtái Qū

Shijingshan
Shijingshan
District 石景山区 Shíjǐngshān Qū

Haidian District 海淀区 Hǎidiàn Qū

Mentougou District 门头沟区 Méntóugōu Qū

Fangshan District 房山区 Fángshān Qū

Tongzhou District 通州区 Tōngzhōu Qū

Shunyi District 顺义区 Shùnyì Qū

Changping District 昌平区 Chāngpíng Qū

Daxing District 大兴区 Dàxīng Qū

Huairou
Huairou
District 怀柔区 Huáiróu Qū

Pinggu District 平谷区 Pínggǔ Qū

Miyun
Miyun
District 密云区 Mìyún Qū

Yanqing District 延庆区 Yánqìng Qū

^ Including "area" (地区). ^ Including other township related subdivisions.

Shichahai, in the Xicheng District, is traditionally considered one of Beijing's most beautiful and charming scenic areas.

Towns[edit] Main article: List of township-level divisions of Beijing Beijing's 16 county-level divisions (districts) are further subdivided into 273 lower third-level administrative units at the township level: 119 towns, 24 townships, 5 ethnic townships and 125 subdistricts. Towns within Beijing
Beijing
Municipality but outside the urban area include (but are not limited to):

Changping 昌平 Huairou
Huairou
怀柔 Miyun
Miyun
密云 Liangxiang 良乡 Liulimiao
Liulimiao
琉璃庙 Tongzhou 通州 Yizhuang 亦庄 Tiantongyuan
Tiantongyuan
天通苑 Beiyuan 北苑 Xiaotangshan 小汤山

Several place names in Beijing
Beijing
end with mén (门), meaning "gate", as they were the locations of gates in the former Beijing
Beijing
city wall. Other place names end in cūn (村), meaning "village", as they were originally villages outside the city wall. Neighborhoods[edit]

This section contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined, unverified or indiscriminate. Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. (October 2017)

The Niujie Mosque
Niujie Mosque
is an important historical attraction

Main article: Neighborhoods in Beijing Neighborhoods may extend across multiple districts. Major neighborhoods in urban Beijing
Beijing
include:

Qianmen
Qianmen
前门 Tian'anmen
Tian'anmen
天安门 Di'anmen
Di'anmen
地安门 Chongwenmen
Chongwenmen
崇文门 Xuanwumen 宣武门 Fuchengmen
Fuchengmen
阜成门 Xizhimen
Xizhimen
西直门 Deshengmen
Deshengmen
德胜门 Andingmen
Andingmen
安定门 Sanlitun
Sanlitun
三里屯 Dongzhimen
Dongzhimen
东直门 Chaoyangmen
Chaoyangmen
朝阳门 Yongdingmen
Yongdingmen
永定门 Zuo'anmen 左安门 You'anmen 右安门 Guangqumen 广渠门 Guang'anmen
Guang'anmen
广安门 Huashi 花市 Xibianmen 西便门 Hepingmen 和平门 Fuxingmen 复兴门 Jianguomen
Jianguomen
建国门 Gongzhufen 公主坟 Fangzhuang 方庄 Guomao 国贸 Hepingli 和平里 Ping'anli
Ping'anli
平安里 Beixinqiao 北新桥 Jiaodaokou 交道口 Kuanjie 宽街 Wangjing 望京 Wangfujing
Wangfujing
王府井 Dengshikou
Dengshikou
灯市口 Wudaokou
Wudaokou
五道口 Xidan
Xidan
西单 Dongdan 东单 Zhongguancun
Zhongguancun
中关村 Panjiayuan 潘家园 Beijing CBD
Beijing CBD
北京商务中心区 Yayuncun 亚运村 Shifoying
Shifoying
石佛营

Judiciary and procuracy[edit] The judicial system in Beijing
Beijing
consists of the Supreme People's Court, the highest court in the country, the Beijing
Beijing
Municipal High People's Court, the high people's court of the municipality, three intermediate people's courts, one intermediate railway transport court, 14 basic people's court (one for each of the municipality's districts and counties), and one basic railway transport court. The Beijing
Beijing
No. 1 Intermediate People's Court in Shijingshan
Shijingshan
oversees the basic courts of Haidian, Shijingshan, Mentougou, Changping and Yanqing.[109] The Beijing
Beijing
No. 2 Intermediate People's Court in Fengtai oversees the basic courts of Dongcheng, Xicheng, Fengtai, Fangshan and Daxing.[109] The Beijing
Beijing
No. 3 Intermediate People's Court in Laiguangying, is the newest of the three intermediate people's courts and opened on 21 August 2013.[109] It oversees the district courts of Chaoyang, Tongzhou, Shunyi, Huairou, Pinggu and Miyun.[109][110] Each court in Beijing
Beijing
has a corresponding people's procuratorate. Diplomatic missions[edit] Main article: List of diplomatic missions in China About 163 countries have embassies in Beijing, which are concentrated in Jianguomenwai, Sanlitun
Sanlitun
and Liangmaqiao
Liangmaqiao
in Chaoyang District. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Beijing

Xidan
Xidan
is one of the oldest and busiest shopping area in Beijing.

As of 2016, Beijing' nominal GDP was US$386.45 billion (CN¥ 2.57 trilion), about 3.45% of the country's GDP and ranked 12th among province-level administrative units; its nominal GDP per capita was US$17,795 (CN¥118,198) and ranked the 1st in the country.[111] Due to the concentration of state owned enterprises in the national capital, Beijing
Beijing
in 2013 had more Fortune Global 500 Company headquarters than any other city in the world.[112]

Historical GDP of Beijing
Beijing
for 1978 –present (SNA2008)[111] (purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017[113])

year GDP GDP per capita (GDPpc) based on mid-year population Reference index

GDP in millions real growth (%) GDPpc exchange rate 1 foreign currency to CNY

CNY USD PPP (Int'l$.) CNY USD PPP (Int'l$.) USD 1 Int'l$. 1 (PPP)

2016 2,566,910 386,449 733,214 6.8 118,198 17,795 33,762 6.6423 3.5009

2015 2,368,570 380,285 667,297 6.9 109,602 17,597 30,878 6.2284 3.5495

2014 2,194,410 357,233 618,074 7.4 102,870 16,746 28,974 6.1428 3.5504

2013 2,033,010 328,265 568,372 7.7 97,178 15,691 27,168 6.1932 3.5769

2012 1,835,010 290,695 516,788 8.0 89,778 14,222 25,284 6.3125 3.5508

2011 1,662,790 257,446 474,337 8.1 83,547 12,935 23,833 6.4588 3.5055

2010 1,444,160 213,333 436,223 10.4 75,572 11,164 22,827 6.7695 3.3106

2009 1,241,900 181,804 393,317 10.0 68,405 10,014 21,664 6.8310 3.1575

2008 1,139,200 164,029 358,600 9.0 66,098 9,517 20,807 6.9451 3.1768

2007 1,007,190 132,455 334,071 14.4 61,470 8,084 20,389 7.6040 3.0149

2006 831,260 104,275 288,863 12.8 52,963 6,644 18,405 7.9718 2.8777

2005 714,140 87,178 249,787 12.3 47,127 5,753 16,484 8.1917 2.8590

2000 321,280 38,809 118,148 12.0 24,517 2,962 9,016 8.2784 2.7193

1995 150,770 18,054 55,239 12.0 12,690 1,520 4,649 8.3510 2.7294

1990 50,080 10,470 29,414 5.2 4,635 969 2,722 4.7832 1.7026

1985 25,710 8,755 18,342 8.7 2,643 900 1,886 2.9366 1.4017

1980 13,910 9,283 9,301 11.8 1,544 1,030 1,032 1.4984 1.4955

1978 10,880 6,462

10.5 1,257 747

1.6836

Sector composition[edit]

The Taikoo Li Sanlitun
Sanlitun
shopping arcade is a popular destination among locals and visitors

The city has a post-industrial economy that is dominated by the tertiary sector (services), which generated 76.9% of output, followed by the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction) at 22.2% and the primary sector (agriculture, mining) at 0.8%. The services sector is broadly diversified with professional services, wholesale and retail, information technology, commercial real estate, scientific research, and residential real estate each contributing at least 6% to the city's economy in 2013.[114] The single largest sub-sector remains industry, whose share of overall output has shrunk to 18.1% in 2013.[114] The mix of industrial output has changed significantly since 2010 when the city announced that 140 highly-polluting, energy and water resource intensive enterprises would be relocated from the city in five years.[115] The relocation of Capital Steel to neighboring Hebei
Hebei
province had begun in 2005.[116][117] In 2013, output of automobiles, aerospace products, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food processing all increased.[114] In the farmland around Beijing, vegetables and fruits have displaced grain as the primary crops under cultivation.[114] In 2013, the tonnage of vegetable, edible fungus and fruit harvested was over three times that of grain.[114] In 2013, overall acreage under cultivation shrank along with most categories of produce as more land was reforested for environmental reasons.[114] Economic zones[edit] Main article: List of economic and technological development zones in Beijing

The skyline of Beijing
Beijing
CBD

Zhongguancun
Zhongguancun
is a technology hub in Haidian District

In 2006, the city government identified six high-end economic output zones around Beijing
Beijing
as the primary engines for local economic growth. In 2012, the six zones produced 43.3% of the city's GDP, up from 36.5% in 2007.[118][119] The six zones are:

Zhongguancun, China's silicon village in Haidian District
Haidian District
northwest of the city, is home to both established and start-up tech companies. As of the second quarter of 2014, of the 9,895 companies registered in one of the six zones, 6,150 were based in Zhongguancun.[120] Beijing
Beijing
Financial Street, in Xicheng District
Xicheng District
on the west side of the city between Fuxingmen and Fuchengmen, is lined with headquarters of large state banks and insurance companies. The country's financial regulatory agencies including the central bank, bank regulator, securities regulator, and foreign exchange authority are located in the neighborhood. Beijing
Beijing
Central Business District (CBD), is actually located to the east of downtown, near the embassies along the eastern Third Ring Road between Jianguomenwai and Chaoyangmenwai. The CBD is home to most of the city's skyscraper office buildings. Most of the city's foreign companies and professional service firms are based in the CBD. Beijing
Beijing
Economic and Technological Development Area, better known as Yizhuang, is an industrial park the straddles the southern Fifth Ring Road in Daxing District. It has attracted pharmaceutical, information technology, and materials engineering companies.[121] Beijing
Beijing
Airport Economic Zone was created in 1993 and surrounds the Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport
in Shunyi District
Shunyi District
northwest of the city. In addition to logistics, airline services, and trading firms, this zone is also home to Beijing's automobile assembly plants. Beijing
Beijing
Olympic Center Zone surrounds the Olympic Green
Olympic Green
due north of downtown and is developing into an entertainment, sports, tourism and business convention center.

Shijingshan, on the western outskirts of the city, is a traditional heavy industrial base for steel-making.[122] Chemical plants are concentrated in the far eastern suburbs. Less legitimate enterprises also exist. Urban Beijing
Beijing
is known for being a center of infringed goods; anything from the latest designer clothing to DVDs can be found in markets all over the city, often marketed to expatriates and international visitors.[123] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Beijing

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1953 2,768,149 —    

1964 7,568,495 +9.57%

1982 9,230,687 +1.11%

1990 10,819,407 +2.00%

2000 13,569,194 +2.29%

2010 19,612,368 +3.75%

2013 21,150,000 +2.55%

2014[124] 21,516,000 +1.73%

Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

In 2013, Beijing
Beijing
had a total population of 21.148 million within the municipality, of which 18.251 million resided in urban districts or suburban townships and 2.897 million lived in rural villages.[114] Within China, the city ranked second in urban population after Shanghai
Shanghai
and the third in municipal population after Shanghai
Shanghai
and Chongqing. Beijing
Beijing
also ranks among the most populous cities in the world, a distinction the city has held for much of the past 800 years, especially during the 15th to early 19th centuries when it was the largest city in the world. About 13 million of the city's residents in 2013 had local hukou permits, which entitles them to permanent residence in Beijing.[114] The remaining 8 million residents had hukou permits elsewhere and were not eligible to receive some social benefits provided by the Beijing municipal government.[114] The population increased in 2013 by 455,000 or about 7% from the previous year and continued a decade-long trend of rapid growth.[114] The total population in 2004 was 14.213 million.[125] The population gains are driven largely by migration. The population's rate of natural increase in 2013 was a mere 0.441%, based on a birth rate of 8.93 and a mortality rate of 4.52.[114] The gender balance was 51.6% males and 48.4% females.[114] Working age people account for nearly 80% of the population. Compared to 2004, residents age 0–14 as a proportion of the population dropped from 9.96% to 9.5% in 2013 and residents over the age of 65 declined from 11.12% to 9.2%.[114][125] According to the 2010 census, nearly 96% of Beijing's population are ethnic Han Chinese.[126] Of the 800,000 ethnic minorities living in the capital, Manchu (336,000), Hui (249,000), Korean (77,000), Mongol (37,000) and Tujia (24,000) constitute the five largest groups.[127] In addition, there were 8,045 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
residents, 500 Macau residents, and 7,772 Taiwan
Taiwan
residents along with 91,128 registered foreigners living in Beijing.[126] A study by the Beijing
Beijing
Academy of Sciences estimates that in 2010 there were on average 200,000 foreigners living in Beijing
Beijing
on any given day including students, business travellers and tourists are not counted as registered residents.[128] From 2000 to 2010, the percentage of city residents with at least some college education nearly doubled from 16.8% to 31.5%.[126] About 22.2% have some high school education and 31% had reached middle school.[126] Metropolitan area[edit] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 24.9 million.[129][4] Culture[edit]

The Beijing
Beijing
Ancient Observatory

A scene from a Peking opera

Royal collection of the Forbidden City

People native to urban Beijing
Beijing
speak the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, which belongs to the Mandarin subdivision of spoken Chinese. This speech is the basis for putonghua, the standard spoken language used in mainland China
China
and Taiwan, and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Rural areas of Beijing
Beijing
Municipality have their own dialects akin to those of Hebei
Hebei
province, which surrounds Beijing
Beijing
Municipality. Beijing
Beijing
or Peking opera
Peking opera
(京剧, Jīngjù) is a traditional form of Chinese theater well known throughout the nation. Commonly lauded as one of the highest achievements of Chinese culture, Beijing
Beijing
opera is performed through a combination of song, spoken dialogue, and codified action sequences involving gestures, movement, fighting and acrobatics. Much of Beijing
Beijing
opera is carried out in an archaic stage dialect quite different from Modern Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
and from the modern Beijing
Beijing
dialect.[130] Beijing cuisine
Beijing cuisine
is the local style of cooking. Peking Roast Duck
Peking Roast Duck
is perhaps the best known dish. Fuling Jiabing, a traditional Beijing snack food, is a pancake (bing) resembling a flat disk with a filling made from fu ling, a fungus used in traditional Chinese medicine. Teahouses are common in Beijing. The cloisonné (or Jingtailan, literally "Blue of Jingtai") metalworking technique and tradition is a Beijing
Beijing
art speciality, and is one of the most revered traditional crafts in China. Cloisonné making requires elaborate and complicated processes which include base-hammering, copper-strip inlay, soldering, enamel-filling, enamel-firing, surface polishing and gilding.[131] Beijing's lacquerware is also well known for its sophisticated and intrinsic patterns and images carved into its surface, and the various decoration techniques of lacquer include "carved lacquer" and "engraved gold". Younger residents of Beijing
Beijing
have become more attracted to the nightlife, which has flourished in recent decades, breaking prior cultural traditions that had practically restricted it to the upper class.[132] Today, Houhai, Sanlitun
Sanlitun
and Wudaokou
Wudaokou
are Beijing's nightlife hotspots. Places of interest[edit] See also: Major National Historical and Cultural Sites (Beijing)
Major National Historical and Cultural Sites (Beijing)
and List of Beijing
Beijing
landmarks

...the city remains an epicenter of tradition with the treasures of nearly 2,000 years as the imperial capital still on view—in the famed Forbidden City
Forbidden City
and in the city's lush pavilions and gardens... — National Geographic[133]

Qianmen
Qianmen
Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen
Qianmen
Gate along the southern Central Axis

At the historical heart of Beijing
Beijing
lies the Forbidden City, the enormous palace compound that was the home of the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties;[134] the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
hosts the Palace Museum, which contains imperial collections of Chinese art. Surrounding the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
are several former imperial gardens, parks and scenic areas, notably Beihai, Shichahai, Zhongnanhai, Jingshan and Zhongshan. These places, particularly Beihai
Beihai
Park, are described as masterpieces of Chinese gardening art,[135] and are popular tourist destinations with tremendous historical importance;[136] in the modern era, Zhongnanhai
Zhongnanhai
has also been the political heart of various Chinese governments and regimes and is now the headquarters of the Communist Party of China
China
and the State Council. From Tiananmen
Tiananmen
Square, right across from the Forbidden City, there are several notable sites, such as the Tiananmen, Qianmen, the Great Hall of the People, the National Museum of China, the Monument to the People's Heroes, and the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. The Summer Palace
Summer Palace
and the Old Summer Palace both lie at the western part of the city; the former, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site,[137] contains a comprehensive collection of imperial gardens and palaces that served as the summer retreats for the Qing imperial family.

Beijing's Temple of Heaven

Ancient Hutongs outside Qianmen
Qianmen
Gate

Among the best known religious sites in the city is the Temple of Heaven (Tiantan), located in southeastern Beijing, also a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site,[138] where emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties made visits for annual ceremonies of prayers to Heaven for good harvest. In the north of the city is the Temple of Earth
Temple of Earth
(Ditan), while the Temple of the Sun (Ritan) and the Temple of the Moon (Yuetan) lie in the eastern and western urban areas respectively. Other well-known temple sites include the Dongyue Temple, Tanzhe Temple, Miaoying Temple, White Cloud Temple, Yonghe Temple, Fayuan Temple, Wanshou Temple
Wanshou Temple
and Big Bell Temple. The city also has its own Confucius Temple, and a Guozijian or Imperial Academy. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, built in 1605, is the oldest Catholic church in Beijing. The Niujie Mosque
Niujie Mosque
is the oldest mosque in Beijing, with a history stretching back over a thousand years.

Inside the Forbidden City

Beijing
Beijing
contains several well-preserved pagodas and stone pagodas, such as the towering Pagoda of Tianning Temple, which was built during the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
from 1100 to 1120, and the Pagoda of Cishou Temple, which was built in 1576 during the Ming dynasty. Historically noteworthy stone bridges include the 12th-century Lugou Bridge, the 17th-century Baliqiao
Baliqiao
bridge, and the 18th-century Jade Belt Bridge. The Beijing Ancient Observatory
Beijing Ancient Observatory
displays pre-telescopic spheres dating back to the Ming and Qing dynasties. The Fragrant Hills
Fragrant Hills
(Xiangshan) is a popular scenic public park that consists of natural landscaped areas as well as traditional and cultural relics. The Beijing
Beijing
Botanical Garden exhibits over 6,000 species of plants, including a variety of trees, bushes and flowers, and an extensive peony garden. The Taoranting, Longtan, Chaoyang, Haidian, Milu Yuan
Milu Yuan
and Zizhu Yuan parks are some of the notable recreational parks in the city. The Beijing Zoo is a center of zoological research that also contains rare animals from various continents, including the Chinese giant panda. There are 144 museums and galleries (as of June 2008) in the city.[139][140][141] In addition to the Palace Museum in the Forbidden City and the National Museum of China, other major museums include the National Art Museum of China, the Capital Museum, the Beijing
Beijing
Art Museum, the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution, the Geological Museum of China, the Beijing Museum of Natural History
Beijing Museum of Natural History
and the Paleozoological Museum of China.[141] Located at the outskirts of urban Beijing, but within its municipality are the Thirteen Tombs of the Ming dynasty, the lavish and elaborate burial sites of thirteen Ming emperors, which have been designated as part of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.[142] The archaeological Peking Man
Peking Man
site at Zhoukoudian is another World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
within the municipality,[143] containing a wealth of discoveries, among them one of the first specimens of Homo erectus
Homo erectus
and an assemblage of bones of the gigantic hyena Pachycrocuta
Pachycrocuta
brevirostris. There are several sections of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
Great Wall
Great Wall
of China,[144] most notably Badaling, Jinshanling, Simatai
Simatai
and Mutianyu. Religion[edit]

Religion in Beijing
Beijing
(2010s)    Chinese religion
Chinese religion
or not religious and atheists (86.26%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(11.2%)    Islam
Islam
(1.76%)    Christianity
Christianity
(0.78%)

A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou.

Fire God Temple in Di'anmen.

The religious heritage of Beijing
Beijing
is rich and diverse as Chinese folk religion, Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Islam
Islam
and Christianity
Christianity
all have significant historical presence in the city. As the national capital, the city also hosts the State Administration for Religious Affairs and various state-sponsored institutions of the leading religions.[145] In recent decades, foreign residents have brought other religions to the city.[145] According to Wang Zhiyun of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 2010 there were 2.2 million Buddhists in the city, equal to 11.2% of the total population.[146] According to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christians constitute 0.78% of the city's population.[147] According to a 2010 survey, Muslims constitute 1.76% of the population of Beijing.[148]

Rear hall of the Capital City God Temple of Beijing.

Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
and Taoism[edit] Beijing
Beijing
has many temples dedicated to folk religious and communal deities, many of which are being reconstructed or refurbished in the 2000s and 2010s. Yearly sacrifices to the God of Heaven (祭天 jìtiān) at the Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven
have been resumed by Confucian groups in the 2010s. There are temples dedicated to the worship of the Goddess (娘娘 Niángniáng) in the city, one of them near the Olympic Village, and they revolve around a major cult center at Mount Miaofeng. There are also many temples consecrated to the Dragon God (龙神 Lóngshén), to the Medicine Master (药王 Yàowáng), to Divus Guan (关帝 Guāndì), to the Fire God (火神 Huǒshén), to the Wealth God (财神 Cáishén), temples of the City God (城隍神 Chénghuángshén), and at least one temple consecrated to the Yellow Deity of the Chariot Shaft (轩辕黄帝 Xuānyuán Huángdì) in Pinggu District. Many of these temples are governed by the Beijing Taoist Association, such as the Fire God Temple of the Shicha Lake, while many others are not and are governed by popular committees and locals. A great Temple of Xuanyuan Huangdi will be built in Pinggu (possibly as an expansion of the already existing shrine) within 2020, and the temple will feature a statue of the deity which will be amongst the tallest in the world.[149][150] The national Chinese Taoist Association and Chinese Taoist College have their headquarters at the White Cloud Temple
White Cloud Temple
of Quanzhen Taoism, which was founded in 741 and rebuilt numerous times. The Beijing Dongyue Temple outside Chaoyangmen
Chaoyangmen
is the largest temple of Zhengyi Taoism
Taoism
in the city. The local Beijing
Beijing
Taoist Association has its headquarters at the Lüzu Temple
Lüzu Temple
near Fuxingmen.[151] Buddhism[edit]

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The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple

Yonghe Lama Temple of Tibetan Buddhism.

11% of the population of Beijing
Beijing
practices Buddhism. The Buddhist Association of China, the state's supervisory organ overseeing all Buddhist
Buddhist
institutions in mainland China, is headquartered in the Guangji Temple, a temple founded over 800 years ago during the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in what is now Fuchengmennei. The Beijing Buddhist
Buddhist
Association along with the Buddhist
Buddhist
Choir and Orchestra are based in the Guanghua Temple, which dates to the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
over 700 years ago. The Buddhist
Buddhist
Academy of China
China
and its library are housed in the Fayuan Temple
Fayuan Temple
near Caishikou. The Fayuan Temple, which dates to the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
1300 years ago, is the oldest temple in urban Beijing. The Tongjiao Temple inside Dongzhimen
Dongzhimen
is the city's only Buddhist
Buddhist
nunnery. The West Yellow Temple originally dates to the Liao dynasty. In 1651, the temple was commissioned by the Qing Emperor Shunzhi to host the visit of the Fifth Dalai Lama to Beijing. Since then, this temple has hosted the 13th Dalai Lama
13th Dalai Lama
as well as the Sixth, Ninth and Tenth Panchen Lamas. The largest Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Temple in Beijing
Beijing
is the Yonghe Temple, which was decreed by the Qing Emperor Qianlong in 1744 to serve as the residence and research facility for his Buddhist preceptor of Rölpé Dorjé the third Changkya (or living Buddha of Inner Mongolia). The Yonghe Temple
Yonghe Temple
is so-named because it was the childhood residence of the Yongzheng Emperor, and retains the glazed tiles reserved for imperial palaces. The Lingguang Temple of Badachu
Badachu
in the Western Hills
Western Hills
also dates to the Tang dynasty. The temple's Zhaoxian Pagoda was first built in 1071 during the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
to hold a tooth relic of the Buddha. The pagoda was destroyed during the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
and the tooth was discovered from its foundation. A new pagoda was built in 1964. The six aforementioned temples: Guangji, Guanghua, Tongjiao, West Yellow, Yonghe and Lingguang have been designated National Key Buddhist Temples in Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Area. In addition, other notable temples in Beijing
Beijing
include the Tanzhe Temple (founded in the Jin dynasty (265–420)
Jin dynasty (265–420)
is the oldest in the municipality), Tianning Temple (oldest pagoda in the city), Miaoying Temple (famed for Yuan-era white dagoba), the Wanshou Temple
Wanshou Temple
(home to the Beijing
Beijing
Art Museum) and Big Bell Temple.

v t e

Buddhist
Buddhist
temples in Beijing

Badachu Bailin Temple Big Bell Temple Changchun
Changchun
Temple Cheng'en Temple Dahui Temple Dajue Temple Fahai Temple Fayuan Temple Guanghua Temple Guangji Temple Hongluo Temple Jietai Temple Miaoying Temple Tanzhe Temple Temple of Azure Clouds Tianning Temple Wanshou Temple Wofo Temple Xifeng Temple Yonghe Temple Yunju Temple Zhenjue Temple Zhihua Temple

Islam[edit]

Niujie Mosque

Beijing
Beijing
has about 70 mosques recognized by the Islamic Association of China, whose headquarters are located next to the Niujie Mosque, the oldest and most famous mosque in the city.[152][153] The Niujie Mosque was founded in 996 during the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
and is frequently visited by Muslim dignitaries. Other notable mosques in the old city include the Dongsi Mosque, founded in 1346; the Huashi Mosque, founded in 1415; Nan Douya Mosque, near Chaoyangmen; Jinshifang Street Mosque, in Xicheng District; and the Dongzhimen
Dongzhimen
Mosque.[154] There are large mosques in outlying Muslim communities in Haidian, Madian, Tongzhou, Changping, Changying, Shijingshan
Shijingshan
and Miyun. The China
China
Islamic Institute is located in the Niujie neighborhood in Xicheng District. Christianity[edit]

Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, founded in 1703.

Catholicism

In 1289, John of Montecorvino came to Beijing
Beijing
as a Franciscan missionary with the order from the Pope. After meeting and receiving the support of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
in 1293, he built the first Catholic church in Beijing
Beijing
in 1305. The Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (CPCA), based in Houhai
Houhai
is the government oversight body for Catholics in mainland China. Notable Catholic churches in Beijing
Beijing
include:

the Nantang or Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception also known as the Xuanwumen Church, which was founded in 1605 and whose current Archbishop Joseph Li Shan
Joseph Li Shan
is one of the few bishops in China
China
to have the support of both the Vatican and the CPCA. the Dongtang or St. Joseph's Church, better known as the Wangfujing Church, founded in 1653. the Beitang or Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, founded in 1703. the Xitang or Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel also known as the Xizhimen
Xizhimen
Church, founded in 1723.

The National Seminary of Catholic Church in China
China
is located in Daxing District.

Protestantism

The earliest Protestant churches in Beijing
Beijing
were founded by British and American missionaries in the second half of the 19th century. Protestant missionaries also opened schools, universities and hospitals which have become important civic institutions. Most of Beijing's Protestant churches were destroyed during the Boxer Rebellion and afterwards rebuilt. In 1958, the 64 Protestant churches in the city are reorganized into four and overseen by the state through the Three-Self Patriotic Movement.

Eastern Orthodox

There were a significant amount of Orthodox Christians in Beijing. Orthodox has come to Beijing
Beijing
along with Russian prisoners from Albazino conflicts in the 17th century.[155] In 1956, Viktor, the bishop of Beijing
Beijing
returned to the Soviet Union, and the Soviet embassy took over the old cathedral and demolished it. In 2007, Russian embassy has rebuilt a new church in its garden to serve the Russian Orthodox Christians in Beijing. Media[edit] Television and radio[edit]

The China
China
Central Television Headquarters building

Beijing Television
Beijing Television
broadcasts on channels 1 through 10, and China Central Television, China's largest television network, maintains its headquarters in Beijing. Three radio stations feature programmes in English: Hit FM on FM 88.7, Easy FM by China
China
Radio International on FM 91.5, and the newly launched Radio 774 on AM 774. Beijing
Beijing
Radio Stations is the family of radio stations serving the city. Press[edit] The well-known Beijing Evening News ( Beijing
Beijing
Wanbao, 北京晚报), covering news about Beijing
Beijing
in Chinese, is distributed every afternoon. Other newspapers include Beijing
Beijing
Daily, The Beijing
Beijing
News (Xin Jing Bao, 新京报), the Beijing
Beijing
Star Daily, the Beijing
Beijing
Morning News, and the Beijing Youth Daily
Beijing Youth Daily
( Beijing
Beijing
Qingnian Bao), as well as English-language weeklies Beijing
Beijing
Weekend and Beijing
Beijing
Today. The People's Daily, Global Times
Global Times
and the China
China
Daily (English) are published in Beijing
Beijing
as well. Publications primarily aimed at international visitors and the expatriate community include the English-language periodicals Time Out Beijing, City Weekend, Beijing
Beijing
This Month, Beijing
Beijing
Talk, That's Beijing, and The Beijinger. Sports[edit] Main articles: Sport in Beijing
Beijing
and Football in Beijing Events[edit]

Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Games

Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills
Fragrant Hills
Park

Beijing
Beijing
has hosted numerous international and national sporting events, the most notable was the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games. Other multi-sport international events held in Beijing
Beijing
include the 2001 Universiade
Universiade
and the 1990 Asian Games. Single-sport international competitions include the Beijing Marathon
Beijing Marathon
(annually since 1981), China
China
Open of Tennis (1993–97, annually since 2004), ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating Cup of China
China
(2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2010), WPBSA China
China
Open for Snooker (annually since 2005), Union Cycliste Internationale
Union Cycliste Internationale
Tour of Beijing (since 2011), 1961 World Table Tennis Championships, 1987 IBF Badminton World Championships, the 2004 AFC Asian Cup
2004 AFC Asian Cup
(football), and 2009 Barclays Asia Trophy (football). Beijing
Beijing
hosted the 2015 IAAF World Championships in Athletics. Beijing's LeSports Center
LeSports Center
will be one of the main venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.[156] The city hosted the second Chinese National Games in 1914 and the first four National Games of China
China
in 1959, 1965, 1975, 1979, respectively, and co-hosted the 1993 National Games with Sichuan
Sichuan
and Qingdao. Beijing
Beijing
also hosted the inaugural National Peasants' Games in 1988 and the sixth National Minority Games in 1999. In November 2013, Beijing
Beijing
made a bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympics.[157] On 31 July 2015, the International Olympic Committee awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics
2022 Winter Olympics
to the city.[158] Venues[edit] Major sporting venues in the city include the National Stadium, also known as the "Birds' Nest",[159][160] National Aquatics Center, also known as the "Water Cube", National Indoor Stadium, all in the Olympic Green to the north of downtown; the MasterCard Center
MasterCard Center
at Wukesong west of downtown; the Workers' Stadium and Workers' Arena in Sanlitun
Sanlitun
just east of downtown and the Capital Arena in Baishiqiao, northeast of downtown. In addition, many universities in the city have their own sport facilities. Clubs[edit] Professional sports teams based in Beijing
Beijing
include:

China
China
Baseball League

Beijing
Beijing
Tigers

Chinese Basketball Association

Beijing
Beijing
Ducks Beikong Fly Dragons

Women's Chinese Basketball Association

Beijing
Beijing
Shougang

Kontinental Hockey League

HC Kunlun Red Star

Chinese Super League

Beijing
Beijing
Guoan Beijing
Beijing
Renhe

China
China
League One

Beijing
Beijing
BG

China
China
League Two

Beijing
Beijing
BIT

Chinese Women's National League

Beijing
Beijing
BG

The Beijing Olympians of the American Basketball Association, formerly a Chinese Basketball Association
Chinese Basketball Association
team, kept their name and maintained a roster of primarily Chinese players after moving to Maywood, California in 2005. China
China
Bandy
Bandy
Federation is based in Beijing, one of several cities in which the potential for bandy development is explored.[161] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transport in Beijing

Mobikes jamming sidewalks in Beijing

Beijing
Beijing
Railway Station, one of several rail stations in the city

Traffic jam in the Beijing
Beijing
CBD

Terminal 3 of the Beijing
Beijing
Capital International Airport

A Line 1 train on the Beijing
Beijing
Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world.

An articulated Beijing
Beijing
bus.

Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue.

Typical Beijing
Beijing
traffic signage found at intersections.

Beijing
Beijing
is an important transport hub in North China
China
with five ring roads, nine expressways, eleven National Highways, nine conventional railways, and two high-speed railways converging on the city. Rail and high-speed rail[edit] Beijing
Beijing
serves as a large rail hub in China's railway network. Ten conventional rail lines radiate from the city to: Shanghai
Shanghai
(Jinghu Line), Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Jingguang Line), Kowloon (Jingjiu Line), Harbin (Jingha Line), Baotou
Baotou
(Jingbao Line), Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao
(Jingqin Line), Chengde
Chengde
(Jingcheng Line), Tongliao, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
(Jingtong Line), Yuanping, Shanxi
Shanxi
(Jingyuan Line) and Shacheng, Hebei
Hebei
(Fengsha Line). In addition, the Datong–Qinhuangdao Railway
Datong–Qinhuangdao Railway
passes through the municipality to the north of the city. Beijing
Beijing
also has three high-speed rail lines: the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway, which opened in 2008; the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which opened in 2011; and the Beijing–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, which opened in 2012. The city's main railway stations are the Beijing
Beijing
Railway Station, which opened in 1959; the Beijing
Beijing
West Railway Station, which opened in 1996; and the Beijing
Beijing
South Railway Station, which was rebuilt into the city's high-speed railway station in 2008. As of 1 July 2010, Beijing Railway Station
Beijing Railway Station
had 173 trains arriving daily, Beijing
Beijing
West had 232 trains and Beijing
Beijing
South had 163. The Beijing
Beijing
North Railway Station, first built in 1909 and expanded in 2009, had 22 trains. Smaller stations in the city including Beijing
Beijing
East Railway Station and Qinghuayuan Railway Station
Qinghuayuan Railway Station
handle mainly commuter passenger traffic. The Fengtai Railway Station has been closed for renovation. In outlying suburbs and counties of Beijing, there are over 40 railway stations.[162] From Beijing, direct passenger train service is available to most large cities in China. International train service is available to Mongolia, Russia, Vietnam
Vietnam
and North Korea. Passenger trains in China are numbered according to their direction in relation to Beijing. Roads and expressways[edit] Further information: Expressways of Beijing
Expressways of Beijing
and China
China
National Highways of Beijing Beijing
Beijing
is connected by road links to all parts of China
China
as part of the National Trunk Road Network. Nine expressways of China
China
serve Beijing, as do eleven China
China
National Highways. Beijing's urban transport is dependent upon the five "ring roads" that concentrically surround the city, with the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
area marked as the geographical centre for the ring roads. The ring roads appear more rectangular than ring-shaped. There is no official "1st Ring Road". The 2nd Ring Road
2nd Ring Road
is located in the inner city. Ring roads tend to resemble expressways progressively as they extend outwards, with the 5th and 6th Ring Roads being full-standard national expressways, linked to other roads only by interchanges. Expressways to other regions of China
China
are generally accessible from the 3rd Ring Road outward. A final outer orbital, the Capital Ring Expressway (G95), is being built and will extend into neighboring Tianjin
Tianjin
and Hebei. Within the urban core, city streets generally follow the checkerboard pattern of the ancient capital. Many of Beijing's boulevards and streets with "inner" and "outer" are still named in relation to gates in the city wall, though most gates no longer stand. Traffic jams are a major concern. Even outside of rush hour, several roads still remain clogged with traffic. Beijing's urban design layout further exacerbates transportation problems.[163] The authorities have introduced several bus lanes, which only public buses can use during rush hour. In the beginning of 2010, Beijing
Beijing
had 4 million registered automobiles.[164] By the end of 2010, the government forecast 5 million. In 2010, new car registrations in Beijing
Beijing
averaged 15,500 per week.[165] Towards the end of 2010, the city government announced a series of drastic measures to tackle traffic jams, including limiting the number of new license plates issued to passenger cars to 20,000 a month and barring cars with non- Beijing
Beijing
plates from entering areas within the Fifth Ring Road during rush hour.[166] More restrictive measures are also reserved during major events or heavily polluted weather. Air[edit] Beijing's primary airport is the Beijing
Beijing
Capital International Airport (IATA: PEK) about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of the city centre. The airport is the second busiest airport in the world after Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta
Atlanta
International Airport.[14] After renovations for the 2008 Olympics, the airport now boasts three terminals, with Terminal 3 being one of the largest in the world. Most domestic and nearly all international flights arrive at and depart from Capital Airport. It is the main hub for Air China
China
and a hub for China
China
Southern and Hainan
Hainan
Airlines. The airport links Beijing
Beijing
with almost every other Chinese city with regular air passenger service. The Airport Expressway links the airport to central Beijing; it is a roughly 40-minute drive from the city centre during good traffic conditions. Prior to the 2008 Olympics, the 2nd Airport Expressway was built to the airport, as well as a light rail system, which now connects to the Beijing
Beijing
Subway. Other airports in the city include Liangxiang, Nanyuan, Xijiao, Shahe and Badaling. These airports are primarily for military use and are less well known to the public. Nanyuan serves as the hub for only one passenger airline. A second international airport, to be called Beijing
Beijing
Daxing International Airport,[167] is currently being built in Daxing District, and is expected to be open by September 2018.[168] As of 1 January 2013[update], tourists from 45 countries are permitted a 72-hour visa-free stay in Beijing. The 45 countries include Singapore, Japan, the United States, Canada, all EU and EEA countries (except Norway
Norway
and Liechtenstein), Switzerland, Brazil, Argentina
Argentina
and Australia. The programme benefits transit and business travellers[169] with the 72 hours calculated starting from the moment visitors receive their transit stay permits rather than the time of their plane's arrival. Foreign visitors are not permitted to leave Beijing
Beijing
for other Chinese cities during the 72 hours.[170] Public transit[edit] The Beijing
Beijing
Subway, which began operating in 1969, now has 22 lines, 370 stations, and 608 km (378 mi) of lines. It is the second longest subway system in the world and first in annual ridership with 3.66 billion rides delivered in 2016. In 2013, with a flat fare of ¥2.00 (0.31 USD) per ride with unlimited transfers on all lines except the Airport Express, the subway was also the most affordable rapid transit system in China. The subway is undergoing rapid expansion and is expected to reach 30 lines, 450 stations, 1,050 kilometres (650 mi) in length by 2020. When fully implemented, 95% of residents inside the Fourth Ring Road will be able to walk to a station in 15 minutes.[171] The Beijing Suburban Railway provides commuter rail service to outlying suburbs of the municipality. On 28 December 2014, the Beijing Subway
Beijing Subway
switched to a distance-based fare system from a fixed fare for all lines except the Airport Express.[172] Under the new system a trip under 6 km will cost ¥3.00(0.49 USD), an additional ¥1.00 will be added for the next 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) and the next 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) until the distance for the trip reaches 32 kilometres (20 miles).[172] For every 20 kilometres (12 miles) after the original 32 kilometres (20 miles) an additional ¥1.00 is added.[172] For example, a 50 kilometres (31 miles) trip would cost ¥ 8.00. There are nearly 1,000 public bus and trolleybus lines in the city, including four bus rapid transit lines. Standard bus fares are as low as ¥1.00 when purchased with the Yikatong metrocard. Taxi[edit] Metered taxi in Beijing
Beijing
start at ¥13 for the first 3 kilometres (1.9 mi), ¥2.3 Renminbi
Renminbi
per additional 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) and ¥1 per ride fuel surcharge, not counting idling fees which are ¥2.3 (¥4.6 during rush hours of 7–9 am and 5–7 pm) per 5 minutes of standing or running at speeds lower than 12 kilometres per hour (7.5 mph) . Most taxis are Hyundai Elantras, Hyundai Sonatas, Peugeots, Citroëns and Volkswagen Jettas. After 15 kilometres (9.3 mi), the base fare increases by 50% (but is only applied to the portion over that distance). Different companies have special colours combinations painted on their vehicles. Usually registered taxis have yellowish brown as basic hue, with another color of Prussian blue, hunter green, white, umber, tyrian purple, rufous, or sea green. Between 11 pm and 5 am, there is also a 20% fee increase. Rides over 15 km (9 mi) and between 23:00 and 06:00 incur both charges, for a total increase of 80%. Tolls during trip should be covered by customers and the costs of trips beyond Beijing
Beijing
city limits should be negotiated with the driver. The cost of unregistered taxis is also subject to negotiation with the driver. Bicycles[edit] Beijing
Beijing
has long been well known for the number of bicycles on its streets. Although the rise of motor traffic has created a great deal of congestion and bicycle use has declined, bicycles are still an important form of local transportation. Large numbers of cyclists can be seen on most roads in the city, and most of the main roads have dedicated bicycle lanes. Beijing
Beijing
is relatively flat, which makes cycling convenient. The rise of electric bicycles and electric scooters, which have similar speeds and use the same cycle lanes, may have brought about a revival in bicycle-speed two-wheeled transport. It is possible to cycle to most parts of the city. Because of the growing traffic congestion, the authorities have indicated more than once that they wish to encourage cycling, but it is not clear whether there is sufficient will to translate that into action on a significant scale.[173] Recently, cycling has seen a resurgence in popularity thanks to the emergence of a large number of dockless app based bikeshares such as Mobike, Bluegogo
Bluegogo
and Ofo.[174] Defense and aerospace[edit]

Chinese President Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping
and a military honor guard welcomes South Korean president Park Geun-hye
Park Geun-hye
in June 2013.

The command headquarters of China's military forces are based in Beijing. The Central Military Commission, the political organ in charge of the military, is housed inside the Ministry of National Defense, located next to the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution in western Beijing. The Second Artillery Corps, which controls the country's strategic missile and nuclear weapons, has its command in Qinghe, Haidian District. The headquarters of the Beijing Military Region, one of seven nationally, is based further west in Gaojing. The Beijing Military Region
Beijing Military Region
oversees the Beijing
Beijing
Garrisons as well as the 27th, 38th and 65th Armies, which are based in Hebei. Military institutions in Beijing
Beijing
also include academies and thinktanks such as the PLA National Defence University
PLA National Defence University
and Academy of Military Science, military hospitals such as the 301, 307 and the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, and army-affiliated cultural entities such as the 1 August Film Studios and the PLA Song and Dance Troupe. The China
China
National Space Administration, which oversees country's space program, and several space-related state owned companies such as CASTC and CASIC are all based in Beijing. The Beijing
Beijing
Aerospace Command and Control Center, in Haidian District
Haidian District
tracks the country's manned and unmanned flight and other space exploration initiatives. Nature and wildlife[edit] Beijing
Beijing
Municipality has 20 nature reserves that have a total area of 1,339.7 km2 (517.3 sq mi).[175] The mountains to the west and north of the city are home to a number of protected wildlife species including leopard, leopard cat, wolf, red fox, wild boar, masked palm civet, raccoon dog, hog badger, Siberian weasel, Amur hedgehog, roe deer, and mandarin rat snake.[176][177][178] The Beijing Aquatic Wildlife Rescue and Conservation Center protects the Chinese giant salamander, Amur stickleback
Amur stickleback
and mandarin duck on the Huaijiu and Huaisha Rivers in Huairou
Huairou
District.[179] The Beijing
Beijing
Milu Park south of the city is home to one of the largest herds of Père David's deer, now extinct in the wild. The Beijing
Beijing
barbastelle, a species of vesper bat discovered in caves of Fangshan District
Fangshan District
in 2001 and identified as a distinct species in 2007, is endemic to Beijing. The mountains of Fangshan are also habitat for the more common Beijing mouse-eared bat, large myotis, greater horseshoe bat and Rickett's big-footed bat.[180] Each year, Beijing
Beijing
hosts 200-300 species of migratory birds including the common crane, black-headed gull, swan, mallard, common cuckoo and the endangered yellow-breasted bunting.[181][182] In May 2016, Common cuckoos nesting in the wetlands of Cuihu (Haidian), Hanshiqiao (Shunyi), Yeyahu (Yanqing) were tagged and have been traced to far as India, Kenya
Kenya
and Mozambique.[183][184] In the fall of 2016, the Beijing
Beijing
Forest Police undertook a month-long campaign to crack down on illegal hunting and trapping of migratory birds for sale in local bird markets.[182] Over 1,000 rescued birds of protected species including streptopelia, Eurasian siskin, crested myna, coal tit and great tit were handed to the Beijing
Beijing
Wildlife Protection and Rescue Center for repatriation to the wild.[182][185] The city flowers are the Chinese rose and chrysanthemum.[186] The city trees are the Chinese arborvitae, an evergreen in the cypress family and the Pagoda Tree, also called the Chinese scholar tree, a deciduous tree of the Fabaceae
Fabaceae
family.[186] The oldest scholar tree in the city was planted in what is now Beihai Park
Beihai Park
during the Tang dynasty, 1,300 years ago.[187] See also[edit]

Beijing
Beijing
portal China
China
portal

2045 Peking—the name of an asteroid Beijing
Beijing
city fortifications Historical capitals of China Large Cities Climate Leadership Group List of hospitals in Beijing List of mayors of Beijing List of twin towns and sister cities in China

References[edit]

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Beijing
Municipal Bureau of Statistics and NBS Survey Office in Beijing. Beijing
Beijing
Bureau of Statistics. 25 January 2018. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.  ^ a b OECD
OECD
Urban Policy Reviews: China
China
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OECD
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Further reading[edit]

Cotterell, Arthur. (2007). The Imperial Capitals of China: An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. pp. 304 pages. ISBN 978-1-84595-009-5.  Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Palo Alto, California, United States: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  Li, Lillian; Dray-Novey, Alison; Kong, Haili (2007). Beijing: From Imperial Capital to Olympic City. New York City, United States: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6473-4.  Bonino, Michele; De Pieri, Filippo (2015). Beijing
Beijing
Danwei: Industrial Heritage in the Contemporary City. Berlin: Jovis. ISBN 978-3-86859-382-2.  Cammelli, Stefano Storia di Pechino e di come divenne capitale della Cina, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2004. ISBN 978-88-15-09910-5 Chen, Gaohua: The Capital of the Yuan Dynasty. [Dadu or Khanbaliq]. Silkroad Press, 2015. ISBN 978-981-4332-44-6 (Print); ISBN 978-981-4339-55-1 (eBook) Harper, Damian, Beijing: City Guide, 7th Edition, Oakland, California: Lonely Planet Publications, 2007. Harper, Damian, Beijing: City Guide, 6th Edition, Oakland, California : Lonely Planet Publications, 2005. ISBN 1-74059-782-6. MacKerras, Colin; Yorke, Amanda (1991). The Cambridge
Cambridge
Handbook of Contemporary China. Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38755-8. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 

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v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta (YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Mid-Reaches ( Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

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Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

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Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

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Summer Paralympic Games
Summer Paralympic Games
host cities

1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto

1980: Arnhem 1984: New York City
New York City
/ Stoke Mandeville 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona
Barcelona
/ Madrid 1996: Atlanta

2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London

2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

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Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
host cities

1924: Chamonix 1928: St. Moritz 1932: Lake Placid 1936: Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940: Cancelled due to World War II 1944: Cancelled due to World War II 1948: St. Moritz 1952: Oslo 1956: Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960: Squaw Valley 1964: Innsbruck 1968: Grenoble 1972: Sapporo 1976: Innsbruck 1980: Lake Placid 1984: Sarajevo 1988: Calgary 1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City 2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: Pyeongchang 2022: Beijing 2026: TBD 2030: TBD

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Winter Paralympic Games
Winter Paralympic Games
host cities

1976: Örnsköldsvik 1980: Geilo 1984: Innsbruck 1988: Innsbruck

1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City

2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: PyeongChang

2022: Beijing

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Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

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Host cities of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics

1983: Helsinki 1987: Rome 1991: Tokyo 1993: Stuttgart 1995: Gothenburg 1997: Athens 1999: Seville 2001: Edmonton 2003: Saint-Denis 2005: Helsinki 2007: Osaka 2009: Berlin 2011: Daegu 2013: Moscow 2015: Beijing 2017: London 2019: Doha 2021: Eugene

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World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas

   

1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon

  6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico
Mexico
City

11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York

16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka

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World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312565158 LCCN: n79076155 GND: 4075971-4 BNF: cb11957264c (d

.