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The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
(康熙; 4 May 1654 – 20 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing
Qing
dynasty,[1] the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass
Shanhai Pass
near Beijing, and the second Qing
Qing
emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722. The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history (although his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, had the longest period of de facto power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world.[2] However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
is considered one of China's greatest emperors.[3] He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan
Taiwan
and assorted Mongol rebels in the North and Northwest to submit to Qing
Qing
rule, and blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River, retaining Outer Manchuria
Outer Manchuria
and Outer Northwest China. The Kangxi Emperor's reign brought about long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. He initiated the period known as the "Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong" or "High Qing",[4] which lasted for several generations after his death. His court also accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary.

Contents

1 Early reign 2 Military achievements

2.1 Army 2.2 Revolt of the Three Feudatories 2.3 Taiwan 2.4 Vietnam 2.5 Russia 2.6 Mongolia 2.7 Manchu
Manchu
Hoifan and Ula rebellion against the Qing 2.8 Tibet 2.9 Chinese nobility

3 Economic achievements 4 Cultural achievements 5 Christianity 6 Succession disputes 7 Death and succession 8 Personality and achievements 9 Popular culture

9.1 Fiction 9.2 Film and television 9.3 Video games

10 Family

10.1 Spouses

10.1.1 Empresses 10.1.2 Imperial Noble Consorts 10.1.3 Noble Consorts 10.1.4 Consorts 10.1.5 Imperial Concubines 10.1.6 Minor

10.2 Issue

10.2.1 Sons 10.2.2 Daughters

11 Ancestry 12 See also 13 Notes 14 Bibliography and further reading

Early reign[edit] Born on 4 May 1654 to the Shunzhi Emperor
Shunzhi Emperor
and Empress Xiaokangzhang
Empress Xiaokangzhang
in Jingren Palace, the Forbidden City, Beijing, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was originally given the personal name Xuanye (Chinese: 玄燁; Möllendorff transliteration: hiowan yei). He was enthroned at the age of seven (or eight by East Asian age reckoning), on 7 February 1661.[5] His era name "Kangxi", however, only started to be used on 18 February 1662, the first day of the following lunar year. Sinologist Herbert Giles, drawing on contemporary sources, described the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
as "fairly tall and well proportioned, he loved all manly exercises, and devoted three months annually to hunting. Large bright eyes lighted up his face, which was pitted with smallpox."[6]

Portrait of the young Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
in court dress

Before the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
came to the throne, Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang (in the name of Shunzhi Emperor) had appointed the powerful men Sonin, Suksaha, Ebilun, and Oboi
Oboi
as regents. Sonin died after his granddaughter became Empress Xiaochengren, leaving Suksaha at odds with Oboi
Oboi
in politics. In a fierce power struggle, Oboi
Oboi
had Suksaha put to death and seized absolute power as sole regent. The Kangxi Emperor and the rest of the imperial court acquiesced in this arrangement. In the spring of 1662, the regents ordered a Great Clearance
Great Clearance
in southern China
China
that evacuated the entire population from the seacoast to counter a resistance movement started by Ming loyalists under the leadership of Taiwan-based Ming general Zheng Chenggong, also titled Koxinga. In 1669, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
had Oboi
Oboi
arrested with the help of his grandmother Grand Dowager Empress Xiaozhuang, who had raised him.[7] and began taking personal control of the empire. He listed three issues of concern: flood control of the Yellow River; repair of the Grand Canal; the Revolt of the Three Feudatories
Revolt of the Three Feudatories
in south China. The Grand Empress Dowager influenced him greatly and he took care of her himself in the months leading up to her death in 1688.[7] Military achievements[edit] See also: Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in Inner Asia Army[edit]

The Emperor mounted on his horse and guarded by his bodyguards

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
in ceremonial armor, armed with bow and arrows, and surrounded by bodyguards.

The main army of the Qing
Qing
Empire, the Eight Banners
Eight Banners
Army, was in decline under the Kangxi Emperor. It was smaller than it had been at its peak under Hong Taiji
Hong Taiji
and in the early reign of the Shunzhi Emperor; however, it was larger than in the Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors' reigns. In addition, the Green Standard Army was still powerful with generals such as Tuhai, Fei Yanggu, Zhang Yong, Zhou Peigong, Shi Lang, Mu Zhan, Shun Shike and Wang Jingbao.[citation needed] The main reason for this decline was a change in system between the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors' reigns. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
continued using the traditional military system implemented by his predecessors, which was more efficient and stricter. According to the system, a commander who returned from a battle alone (with all his men dead) would be put to death, and likewise for a foot soldier. This was meant to motivate both commanders and soldiers alike to fight valiantly in war because there was no benefit for the sole survivor in a battle.[citation needed] By the Qianlong Emperor's reign, military commanders had become lax and the training of the army was deemed less important as compared to during the previous emperors' reigns. This was because commanders' statuses had become hereditary; a general gained his position based on the contributions of his forefathers.[citation needed] Revolt of the Three Feudatories[edit] Main article: Revolt of the Three Feudatories The Revolt of the Three Feudatories
Revolt of the Three Feudatories
broke out in 1673 when Wu Sangui's forces overran most of southwest China
China
and he tried to ally himself with local generals such as Wang Fuchen. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
employed generals including Zhou Peigong and Tuhai to suppress the rebellion, and also granted clemency to common people caught up in the war. He intended to personally lead the armies to crush the rebels but his subjects advised him against it. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
used mainly Han Chinese Green Standard Army soldiers to crush the rebels while the Manchu
Manchu
Banners took a backseat. The revolt ended with victory for Qing forces in 1681. Taiwan[edit] Main article: Qing
Qing
conquest of Taiwan In 1683, the naval forces of the Ming loyalists on Taiwan—organized under the Zheng dynasty as the Kingdom of Tungning—were defeated off Penghu by 300-odd ships under the Qing
Qing
admiral Shi Lang. Koxinga's grandson Zheng Keshuang surrendered Tungning a few days later and Taiwan
Taiwan
became part of the Qing
Qing
Empire. Zheng Keshuang moved to Beijing, joined the Qing
Qing
nobility as the "Duke Haicheng" (海澄公), and was inducted into the Eight Banners
Eight Banners
as a member of the Han Plain Red Banner. His soldiers—including the rattan-shield troops (藤牌营, tengpaiying)—were similarly entered into the Eight Banners, notably serving against Russian Cossacks at Albazin. A score of Ming princes had joined the Zheng dynasty on Taiwan, including Prince Zhu Shugui
Zhu Shugui
of Ningjing and Prince Honghuan (w:zh:朱弘桓), the son of Zhu Yihai. The Qing
Qing
sent most of the 17 Ming princes still living on Taiwan
Taiwan
back to mainland China, where they spent the rest of their lives.[8] The Prince of Ningjing and his five concubines, however, committed suicide rather than submit to capture. Their palace was used as Shi Lang's headquarters in 1683, but he memorialized the emperor to convert it into a Mazu temple
Mazu temple
as a propaganda measure in quieting remaining resistance on Taiwan. The emperor approved its dedication as the Grand Matsu Temple
Grand Matsu Temple
the next year and, honoring the goddess Mazu for her supposed assistance during the Qing
Qing
invasion, promoted her to "Empress of Heaven" (Tianhou) from her previous status as a "heavenly consort" (tianfei).[9][10] Belief in Mazu remains so widespread on Taiwan
Taiwan
that her annual celebrations can gather hundreds of thousands of people; she is sometimes even syncretized with Guanyin
Guanyin
and the Virgin Mary. The end of the rebel stronghold and capture of the Ming princes allowed the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
to relax the Sea Ban
Sea Ban
and permit resettlement of the Fujian
Fujian
and Guangdong
Guangdong
coasts. The financial and other incentives to new settlers particularly drew the Hakka, who would have continuous low-level conflict with the returning Punti people for the next few centuries. Vietnam[edit] In 1673, the Kangxi Emperor's government helped to mediate a truce in the Trịnh–Nguyễn War
Trịnh–Nguyễn War
in Vietnam, which had been ongoing for 45 years since 1627. The peace treaty that was signed between the conflicting parties lasted for 101 years until 1774.[11] Russia[edit] Main article: Sino-Russian border conflicts

Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
at 32 (from le Comte's Nouveaux Memoires, 1696)

In the 1650s, the Qing
Qing
Empire engaged the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
in a series of border conflicts along the Amur River
Amur River
region, which concluded with the Qing
Qing
gaining control of the area after the Siege of Albazin. The Russians invaded the northern frontier again in the 1680s. A series of battles and negotiations culminated in the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689, by which a border was agreed and the Amur River valley was given to the Qing
Qing
Empire. Mongolia[edit] The Inner Mongolian Chahar leader Ligdan Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing
Qing
until he died of smallpox in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols under his son Ejei Khan surrendered to the Qing
Qing
and he was given the title of Prince (Qin Wang, 親王). The Inner Mongolian nobility now became closely tied to the Qing
Qing
royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu
Manchu
Qing
Qing
rule, he was placed under house arrested in 1669 in Shenyang
Shenyang
and the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
gave his title to his son Borni. Abunai bided his time then, with his brother Lubuzung, revolted against the Qing
Qing
in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, with 3,000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt. The revolt was put down within two months, the Qing
Qing
defeating the rebels in battle on April 20, 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu
Manchu
Qing
Qing
princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu
Manchu
Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols were then put under the direct control of the Qing
Qing
Emperor unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy.

Emperor Kangxi's camp on Kerulen
Kerulen
during the campaign of 1696.

The Outer Khalkha Mongols
Khalkha Mongols
had preserved their independence, and only paid tribute to the Qing
Qing
Empire. However, a conflict between the houses of Tümen Jasagtu Khan
Tümen Jasagtu Khan
and Tösheetü Khan led to a dispute between the Khalkha
Khalkha
and the Dzungars over the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. In 1688, the Dzungar chief, Galdan Boshugtu Khan, attacked the Khalkha
Khalkha
from the west and invaded their territory. The Khalkha royal families and the first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
crossed the Gobi Desert and sought help from the Qing
Qing
Empire in return for submission to Qing
Qing
authority. In 1690, the Dzungars and Qing
Qing
forces clashed at the Battle of Ulan Butung
Battle of Ulan Butung
in Inner Mongolia, in which the Qing eventually emerged as the victor. In 1696, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
personally led three armies, totaling 80,000 in strength, in a campaign against the Dzungars in the early Dzungar– Qing
Qing
War. The western section of the Qing
Qing
army defeated Galdan's forces at the Battle of Jao Modo
Battle of Jao Modo
and Galdan died in the following year. Manchu
Manchu
Hoifan and Ula rebellion against the Qing[edit]

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
at the age of 45, painted in 1699

In 1700, some 20,000 Qiqihar Xibe were resettled in Guisui, modern Inner Mongolia, and 36,000 Songyuan Xibe were resettled in Shenyang, Liaoning. The relocation of the Xibe from Qiqihar is believed by Liliya M. Gorelova to be linked to the Qing's annihilation of the Manchu
Manchu
clan Hoifan (Hoifa) in 1697 and the Manchu
Manchu
tribe Ula in 1703 after they rebelled against the Qing; both Hoifan and Ula were wiped out.[12] Tibet[edit] In 1701, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
ordered the reconquest of Kangding
Kangding
and other border towns in western Sichuan
Sichuan
that had been taken by the Tibetans. The Manchu
Manchu
forces stormed Dartsedo and secured the border with Tibet
Tibet
and the lucrative tea-horse trade. The Tibetan desi (regent) Sangye Gyatso
Sangye Gyatso
concealed the death of the 5th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
in 1682, and only informed the emperor in 1697. He moreover kept relations with Dzungar enemies of the Qing. All this evoked the great displeasure of the Kangxi Emperor. Eventually Sangye Gyatso
Sangye Gyatso
was toppled and killed by the Khoshut
Khoshut
ruler Lha-bzang Khan
Lha-bzang Khan
in 1705. As a reward for ridding him of his old enemy the Dalai Lama, the Kangxi Emperor appointed Lha-bzang Khan
Lha-bzang Khan
Regent
Regent
of Tibet
Tibet
(翊法恭顺汗; Yìfǎ gōngshùn Hán; "Buddhism Respecting, Deferential Khan").[13] The Dzungar Khanate, a confederation of Oirat tribes based in parts of what is now Xinjiang, continued to threaten the Qing
Qing
Empire and invaded Tibet
Tibet
in 1717. They took control of Lhasa
Lhasa
with a 6,000 strong army and killed Lha-bzang Khan. The Dzungars held on to the city for three years and at the Battle of the Salween River defeated a Qing army sent to the region in 1718. The Qing
Qing
did not take control of Lhasa
Lhasa
until 1720, when the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
sent a larger expedition force there to defeat the Dzungars. Chinese nobility[edit] The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
granted the title of Wujing Boshi (五经博士; 五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Shao Yong, Zhu Xi, Zhuansun Shi, Ran family (Ran Qiu, Ran Geng, Ran Yong), Bu Shang, Yan Yan (disciple of Confucius), and the Duke of Zhou's offspring.[14][15] Economic achievements[edit]

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The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
returning to Beijing
Beijing
after a southern inspection tour in 1689.

The contents of the national treasury during the Kangxi Emperor's reign were:

1668 (7th year of Kangxi): 14,930,000 taels 1692: 27,385,631 taels 1702–1709: approximately 50,000,000 taels with little variation during this period 1710: 45,880,000 taels 1718: 44,319,033 taels 1720: 39,317,103 taels 1721 (60th year of Kangxi, second last of his reign): 32,622,421 taels

The reasons for the declining trend in the later years of the Kangxi Emperor's reign were a huge expenditure on military campaigns and an increase in corruption. To fix the problem, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
gave Prince Yong (the future Yongzheng Emperor) advice on how to make the economy more efficient. Cultural achievements[edit]

A vase from the early Kangxi period (Musée Guimet)

During his reign, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
ordered the compilation of a dictionary of Chinese characters, which became known as the Kangxi Dictionary. This was seen as an attempt by the emperor to gain support from the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
scholar-bureaucrats, as many of them initially refused to serve him and remained loyal to the Ming dynasty. However, by persuading the scholars to work on the dictionary without asking them to formally serve the Qing
Qing
imperial court, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
led them to gradually taking on greater responsibilities until they were assuming the duties of state officials. In 1705, on the Kangxi Emperor's order, a compilation of Tang poetry, the Quantangshi, was produced. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
also was interested in Western technology and wanted to import them to China. This was done through Jesuit missionaries, such as Ferdinand Verbiest, whom the Kangxi Emperor frequently summoned for meetings, or Karel Slavíček, who made the first precise map of Beijing
Beijing
on the emperor's order. From 1711 to 1723, Matteo Ripa, an Italian priest sent to China
China
by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, worked as a painter and copper-engraver at the Qing
Qing
court. In 1723, he returned to Naples from China
China
with four young Chinese Christians, in order to groom them to become priests and send them back to China
China
as missionaries. This marked the beginning of the Collegio dei Cinesi, sanctioned by Pope Clement XII to help the propagation of Christianity
Christianity
in China. This Chinese Institute was the first school of Sinology in Europe, which would later develop to become the Istituto Orientale and the present day Naples
Naples
Eastern University. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was also the first Chinese emperor to play a western musical instrument. He employed Karel Slavíček
Karel Slavíček
as court musician. Slavíček was playing Spinet; later the emperor would play on it himself. He also invented a Chinese calendar.[citation needed] China's famed blue and white porcelain probably reached its zenith during the Kangxi Emperor's reign. Christianity[edit] Main article: Chinese Rites controversy

Jesuit astronomers of the Jesuit China
China
missions, with the Kangxi Emperor (Beauvais, 1690–1705)

In the early decades of the Kangxi Emperor's reign, Jesuits played a large role in the imperial court. With their knowledge of astronomy, they ran the imperial observatory. Jean-François Gerbillon
Jean-François Gerbillon
and Thomas Pereira served as translators for the negotiations of the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was grateful to the Jesuits for their contributions, the many languages they could interpret, and the innovations they offered his military in gun manufacturing[16] and artillery, the latter of which enabled the Qing
Qing
Empire to conquer the Kingdom of Tungning.[17] The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was also fond of the Jesuits' respectful and unobtrusive manner; they spoke the Chinese language
Chinese language
well, and wore the silk robes of the elite.[18] In 1692, when Fr. Thomas Pereira requested tolerance for Christianity, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was willing to oblige, and issued the Edict of Toleration,[19] which recognized Catholicism, barred attacks on their churches, and legalized their missions and the practice of Christianity
Christianity
by the Chinese people.[20] However, controversy arose over whether Chinese Christians could still take part in traditional Confucian ceremonies and ancestor worship, with the Jesuits arguing for tolerance and the Dominicans taking a hard-line against foreign "idolatry". The Dominican position won the support of Pope Clement XI, who in 1705 sent Charles-Thomas Maillard De Tournon as his representative to the Kangxi Emperor, to communicate the ban on Chinese rites.[16][21] On 19 March 1715, Pope Clement XI issued the papal bull Ex illa die, which officially condemned Chinese rites.[16] In response, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
officially forbade Christian missions in China, as they were "causing trouble".[22] Succession disputes[edit]

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The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
on a tour, seated prominently on the deck of a junk.

A prolonged struggle between various princes emerged during the Kangxi Emperor's reign over who should inherit the throne – the Nine Lords' War (九子夺嫡). The Kangxi Emperor's first spouse, Empress Xiaochengren, gave birth to his second surviving son Yinreng, who at the age of two was named crown prince – a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
custom, to ensure stability during a time of chaos in the south. Although the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
left the education of several of his sons to others, he personally oversaw the upbringing of Yinreng, grooming him to be a perfect successor. Yinreng was tutored by the mandarin Wang Shan, who remained devoted to him, and spent the later years of his life trying to persuade the Kangxi Emperor to restore Yinreng
Yinreng
as the crown prince. Yinreng
Yinreng
proved to be unworthy of the succession despite his father showing favoritism towards him. He was said to have beaten and killed his subordinates, and was alleged to have had sexual relations with one of his father's concubines, which was deemed incest and a capital offence. Yinreng
Yinreng
also purchased young children from Jiangsu
Jiangsu
to satisfy his pedophiliac pleasure. In addition, Yinreng's supporters, led by Songgotu, gradually formed a "Crown Prince Party" (太子黨), that aimed to help Yinreng
Yinreng
get the throne as soon as possible, even if it meant using unlawful methods.

The seated Kangxi Emperor

Over the years, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
kept constant watch over Yinreng and became aware of his son's many flaws, while their relationship gradually deteriorated. In 1707, the emperor decided that he could no longer tolerate Yinreng's behavior, which he partially mentioned in the imperial edict as "never obeying ancestors' virtues, never obliged to my order, only doing inhumanity and devilry, only showing maliciousness and lust",[23] and decided to strip Yinreng
Yinreng
of his position as crown prince. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
placed his oldest surviving son, Yinzhi, in charge of overseeing Yinreng's house arrest. Yinzhi, an unfavored Shu son, knowing he had no chance of being selected, recommended the eighth prince, Yinsi, and requested his father to order Yinreng's execution. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was enraged and stripped Yinzhi of his titles. The emperor then commanded his subjects to cease debating the succession issue, but despite this and attempts to reduce rumours and speculation as to who the new crown prince might be, the imperial court's daily activities were disrupted. Yinzhi's actions caused the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
to suspect that Yinreng might have been framed, so he restored Yinreng
Yinreng
as crown prince in 1709, with the support of the 4th and 13th princes, and on the excuse that Yinreng
Yinreng
had previously acted under the influence of mental illness.

A turtle-based stele with the Kangxi Emperor's inscription, erected in 1699 at the Nanjing
Nanjing
mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor, honouring the founder of the preceding Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
as surpassing the founders of the Tang and Song dynasties.[24]

In 1712, during the Kangxi Emperor's last inspection tour of the south, Yinreng, who was put in charge of state affairs during his father's absence, tried to vie for power again with his supporters. He allowed an attempt at forcing the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
to abdicate when his father returned to Beijing. However, the emperor received news of the planned coup d'etat, and was so angry that he deposed Yinreng
Yinreng
and placed him under house arrest again. After the incident, the emperor announced that he would not appoint any of his sons as crown prince for the remainder of his reign. He stated that he would place his Imperial Valedictory Will inside a box in the Palace of Heavenly Purity, which would only be opened after his death. Seeing that Yinreng
Yinreng
was completely disavowed, Yingsi and some other princes turned to support the 14th prince, Yinti, while the 13th prince supported Yinzhen. They formed the so-called "Eighth Lord Party" (八爷党) and "Fourth Lord Party" (四爷党). Death and succession[edit] Following the deposition of the crown prince, the Kangxi Emperor implemented groundbreaking changes in the political landscape. The 13th prince, Yinxiang, was placed under house arrest as well for cooperating with Yinreng. The eighth prince Yinsi was stripped of all his titles and only had them restored years later. The 14th prince Yinti, whom many considered to be the most likely candidate to succeed the Kangxi Emperor, was sent on a military campaign during the political conflict. Yinsi, along with the ninth and tenth princes, Yintang and Yin'e, pledged their support to Yinti. In the evening of 20 December 1722 before his death, the Kangxi Emperor called seven of his sons to assemble at his bedside. They were the third, fourth, eight, ninth, tenth, 16th and 17th princes. After the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
died, Longkodo announced that the emperor had selected the fourth prince, Yinzhen, as the new emperor. Yinzhen ascended to the throne and became known as the Yongzheng Emperor. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was entombed at the Eastern Tombs in Zunhua, Hebei. A legend concerning the Kangxi Emperor's will states that he chose Yinti as his heir, but Yinzhen forged the will in his own favour. It has, however, long been refuted by serious historians. Yinzhen, later the Yongzheng Emperor, has attracted many rumours, and some novel-like private books claim he did not die of illness but was assassinated by a swordswoman, Lü Siniang (吕四娘), the granddaughter of Lü Liuliang, though this is never treated seriously by scholars.[25] Personality and achievements[edit]

Kangxi Emperor

Chinese name

Chinese 康熙帝

Literal meaning Peace and tranquility

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Kāngxī dì

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Kangshi dih

Wade–Giles K'ang1-hsi1 ti4

IPA [kʰáŋɕí tî]

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Hōng-hēi dai

Jyutping Hong1-hei1 dai3

Southern Min

Tâi-lô Khong-hi tè

Mongolian name

Mongolian ᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠠᠮᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠩ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Энх амгалан хаан

Transcriptions

SASM/GNC engke amuɣulang khaan

Manchu
Manchu
name

Manchu
Manchu
script ᡝᠯᡥᡝ ᡨᠠᡳᡶᡳᠨ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡩᡳ

Möllendorff Elhe taifin hūwangdi

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was the great consolidator of the Qing
Qing
dynasty. The transition from the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
to the Qing
Qing
was a cataclysm whose central event was the fall of the capital Beijing
Beijing
to the peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng, then to the Manchus in 1644, and the installation of the five-year-old Shunzhi Emperor
Shunzhi Emperor
on their throne. By 1661, when the Shunzhi Emperor
Shunzhi Emperor
died and was succeeded by the Kangxi Emperor, the Qing
Qing
conquest of China
China
proper was almost complete. Leading Manchus were already using Chinese institutions and mastering Confucian ideology, while maintaining Manchu
Manchu
culture among themselves. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
completed the conquest, suppressed all significant military threats and revived the central government system inherited from the Ming with important modifications. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was a workaholic, rising early and retiring late, reading and responding to numerous memorials every day, conferring with his councilors and giving audiences – and this was in normal times; in wartime, he might be reading memorials from the warfront until after midnight or even, as with the Dzungar conflict, away on campaign in person.[26] The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
devised a system of communication that circumvented the scholar-bureaucrats, who had a tendency to usurp the power of the emperor. This Palace Memorial System involved the transfer of secret messages between him and trusted officials in the provinces, where the messages were contained in locked boxes that only he and the official had access to. This started as a system for receiving uncensored extreme-weather reports, which the emperor regarded as divine comments on his rule. However, it soon evolved into a general-purpose secret "news channel." Out of this emerged a Grand Council, which dealt with extraordinary, especially military, events. The council was chaired by the emperor and manned by his more elevated Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Manchu household staff. From this council, the mandarin civil servants were excluded – they were left only with routine administration.[27] The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
managed to woo the Confucian intelligentsia into co-operating with the Qing
Qing
government, despite their deep reservations about Manchu
Manchu
rule and loyalty to the Ming. He appealed to this very sense of Confucian values, for instance, by issuing the Sacred Edict in 1670. He encouraged Confucian learning and made sure that the civil service examinations were held every three years even during times of stress. When some scholars, out of loyalty to the Ming, refused to take the exams, he hit upon the expedient of a special exam to be taken by nomination. He personally sponsored the writing of the Ming Official History, the Kangxi Dictionary, a phrase-dictionary, a vast encyclopedia and an even vaster compilation of Chinese literature. To promote his image as a "sage ruler," he appointed Manchu
Manchu
and Chinese tutors with whom he studied the Confucian classics and worked intensively on Chinese calligraphy.[28] In the one military campaign in which he actively participated, against the Dzungar Mongols, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
showed himself an effective military commander. According to Finer, the emperor's own written reflections allow one to experience "how intimate and caring was his communion with the rank-and-file, how discriminating and yet masterful his relationship with his generals".[29] As a result of the scaling down of hostilities as peace returned to China
China
after the Manchu
Manchu
conquest, and also as a result of the ensuing rapid increase of population, land cultivation and therefore tax revenues based on agriculture, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was able first to make tax remissions, then in 1712 to freeze the land tax and corvée altogether, without embarrassing the state treasury (although the dynasty eventually suffered from this fiscal policy).[30] Popular culture[edit] Fiction[edit]

Kangxi Dadi (康熙大帝; The Great Kangxi Emperor), a historical novel by Er Yuehe which romanticises the Kangxi Emperor's life. The Deer and the Cauldron
The Deer and the Cauldron
(鹿鼎記), a wuxia novel by Louis Cha. In the story, by coincidence, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and the protagonist, Wei Xiaobao, become close friends in their childhood. Wei helps the emperor consolidate his rule over the Qing
Qing
Empire and plays an important role in affecting how significant historical events during the Kangxi era unfold. Qijian Xia Tianshan (七劍下天山; Seven Swords Descend from Mount Heaven), a wuxia novel by Liang Yusheng. In the story, the Kangxi Emperor discovers that his father, the Shunzhi Emperor, has become a monk in a monastery on Mount Wutai. He orders a close aide to kill his father in order to consolidate power, and attempts to erase evidence of the murder later.

Film and television[edit]

The Deer and the Cauldron
The Deer and the Cauldron
(1984), a Hong Kong television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Andy Lau
Andy Lau
as the Kangxi Emperor. The Ching Emperor (天子屠龍) (1995), a Hong Kong TVB series, starring Julian Cheung as the Kangxi Emperor. The Deer and the Cauldron
The Deer and the Cauldron
(1998), a Hong Kong television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Steven Ma
Steven Ma
as the Kangxi Emperor. Kangxi Dynasty
Dynasty
(2001), a Chinese television series adapted from Er Yuehe's novel The Great Kangxi Emperor, starring Chen Daoming as the Kangxi Emperor. Secret History of Kangxi
Secret History of Kangxi
(康熙秘史) (2006), the fourth instalment in a four-part Chinese television series about the early history of the Qing
Qing
dynasty, starring Xia Yu as the Kangxi Emperor. Records of Kangxi's Travel Incognito (1998–2007), a five-season Chinese television series about the Kangxi Emperor's inspection tours to southern China. During some of his tours, the emperor disguised himself as a commoner to conceal his identity so that he can blend into society and understand commoners' daily lives better. Zhang Guoli starred as the Kangxi Emperor. The Deer and the Cauldron
The Deer and the Cauldron
(2008), a Chinese television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Wallace Chung as the Kangxi Emperor. The Life and Times of a Sentinel
The Life and Times of a Sentinel
(2011), a Hong Kong television series about Fuquan attempting to overthrow the Kangxi Emperor, starring Power Chan as the Kangxi Emperor. Palace (2011), a Chinese television series set in the Kangxi era of the Qing
Qing
dynasty. A woman from the 21st century accidentally travels back in time to the 18th century. Kent Tong portrayed the Kangxi Emperor. Scarlet Heart
Scarlet Heart
(2011), a Chinese television series set in the Kangxi era of the Qing
Qing
dynasty. A woman from the 21st century accidentally travels back in time to the 18th century. Damian Lau portrayed the Kangxi Emperor. The Deer and the Cauldron
The Deer and the Cauldron
(2014), a Chinese television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Wei Qianxiang as the Kangxi Emperor. Gilded Chopsticks
Gilded Chopsticks
(2014), a Hong Kong television series about a chef who befriends Yinzhen (the future Yongzheng Emperor) and aids him in the power struggle for the succession. Elliot Ngok portrayed the Kangxi Emperor. Chronicle of Life
Chronicle of Life
(2016), a Chinese television series about a romance between the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and his childhood love. Hawick Lau portrayed the Emperor.

Video games[edit]

Age of Empires III: The Asian Dynasties: The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
is featured as the Chinese leader in this real-time strategy game.

Family[edit] Spouses[edit] See also: Ranks of imperial consorts in China
China
§ Qing The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
had an estimated 64 spouses in total. Note that not all of them are listed in the table below. Empresses[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Empress Xiaocheng Ren 孝诚仁皇后 Lady Hešeri 赫舍里氏 3 Feb 1654 6 Jun 1674 Gabula, interior minister 领待卫内大臣噶布喇 unknown Chenghu 2. Prince Mi of Li of the First Rank Married Shengzu and became Empress in 1665 Died in childbirth Posthumously honoured as Empress Renxiao (仁孝皇后) in 1674 Posthumously honoured in 1723

Empress Xiaozhao Ren 孝昭仁皇后 Lady Niohuru 钮祜禄氏 1653 18 Mar 1678 Ebilun, first class Duke (grandson of Taizu) 一等公遏必隆 Lady Šušu–Gioro 舒舒觉罗氏 none Started out as Consort (妃) in 1665 Became Empress in 1677 Posthumously honoured as Empress Xiaozhao in 1678 Posthumously honoured in 1723

Empress Xiaoyi Ren 孝懿仁皇后 Lady Tunggiya 佟佳氏 c.1665 24 Aug 1689 Tong Guowei, first class Duke 一等公佟国维 Lady Hešeri 赫舍里氏 daughter Became Noble Consort (贵妃) in 1677 Became the adoptive mother of Shizong in 1678 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort (皇贵妃) in 1681 Became Empress in 1689 Posthumously honoured as Empress Xiaoyi in 1689 Posthumously honoured in 1723

Empress Xiaogong Ren 孝恭仁皇后 Lady Uya 乌雅氏 1660 1723 Weiwu, first class Duke 一等公威武 Lady Saiheri 塞和里氏 4. Shizong 6. Yinzuo daughter 4. Princess Wenxian of the First Rank daughter 14. Prince Qin of Xun of the Second Rank Bondservant Became Imperial Concubine De (德嫔) in 1679 Promoted to Consort De (德妃) in 1681 Became Empress Dowager Renshou (仁寿皇太后) in 1722 Posthumously honoured in 1723

Imperial Noble Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Imperial Noble Consort Quehui 悫惠皇贵妃 Lady Tunggiya 佟佳氏 1668 1743 Tong Guowei, first class Duke 一等公佟国维 none Became Noble Consort in 1700 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort in 1724 Became Imperial Noble Consort Shouqi (寿祺皇贵妃) in 1736 Raised Qianlong Emperor

Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin 敬敏皇贵妃 Lady Janggiya 章佳氏 c.1668 1699 Shuose, calvary colonel 骁骑校硕色 13. Prince Xian of Yi of the First Rank 6. Princess Wenke of the Second Rank 8. Princess Dunke of the Second Rank Bondservant Ordinary consort (庶妃) Posthumously honoured as Consort Min in 1699 Posthumously honoured in 1724

Imperial Noble Consort Dunyi 惇怡皇贵妃 Lady Gūwalgiya 瓜尔佳氏 1683 1768 Yuman, xieling 协领裕满 daughter Became Imperial Concubine He (和嫔) in 1700 Promoted to Consort He (和妃) in 1718 Promoted to Noble Consort in 1724 Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort Wenhui (温惠皇贵妃) in 1743 Raised Qianlong Emperor

Noble Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Noble Consort Wenxi 温僖贵妃 Lady Niohuru 钮祜禄氏 c.1665 1694 Ebilun, first class Duke (grandson of Taizu) 一等公遏必隆 10. Duke of the Second Rank daughter Became Noble Consort in 1681

Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Consort Hui 慧妃 Lady Borjigit 博尔济吉特氏 unknown 1670 Ayuxi, third class taiji of Khorchin 科尔沁三等台吉阿郁锡 unknown none Posthumously honoured in 1670

Consort Rong 荣妃 Lady Magiya 马佳氏 c.1649 1727 Gaishan, yuanwailang 员外郎盖山 unknown Chengrui Saiyinchahun 1. Princess Rongxian of the First Rank Changhua Changsheng 3. Prince Yin of Cheng of the Second Rank Started out as ordinary consort (庶妃) Became Imperial Concubine Rong (荣嫔) in 1677 Promoted in 1681

Consort Hui 惠妃 Lady Nara 那拉氏 c.1652 1732 Suo'erhe, langzhong 郎中索尔和 unknown Chengqing 1. Prince of the Fourth Rank Started out as ordinary consort (庶妃) Became Imperial Concubine Hui (惠嫔) in 1677 Promoted to Consort Hui in 1681 Adoptive mother of Prince Lian of the First Rank

Consort Yi 宜妃 Lady Gorolo 郭络罗氏 c.1662 1733 Sanguanbao, zuoling 佐领三官保 unknown 5. Prince Wen of Heng of the First Rank 9. Prince of the Fourth Rank 11. Yinzi Became Imperial Concubine Yi (宜嫔) in 1677 Promoted to Consort Yi in 1681 Adoptive mother of Princess Kejing of the First Rank and Princess Wenke of the Second Rank

Consort Ping 平妃 Lady Hešeri 赫舍里氏 c.1673 1696 Gabula, interior minister 领待卫内大臣噶布喇 unknown Yinji Posthumously honoured in 1696

Consort Liang 良妃 Lady Giorca, Wei 觉尔察氏, 卫氏 c.1663 29 Dec 1711 Abunai, interior military officer 内管领阿布鼐 unknown 8. Prince Lian of the First Rank Sinjeku bondservant Started out as Imperial Concubine Liang (良嫔) and promoted in 1700

Consort Cheng 成妃 Lady Daigiya 戴佳氏 c.1662 1740 Zhuoqi, treasurer 司库卓奇 unknown 7. Prince Du of Chun of the First Rank Started out as Consort Cheng in 1718

Consort Xuan 宣妃 Lady Borjigit 博尔济吉特氏 unknown 12 Sep 1736 Heta, Prince of the First Rank of Khorchin 科尔沁亲王和塔 unknown none Started out as Consort Xuan in 1718

Consort Ding 定妃 Lady Wanlioha 万琉哈氏 1661 24 May 1757 Tuo'erbi, langzhong 郎中拖尔弼 unknown 12. Prince Yi of Lü of the First Rank Sinjeku bondservant Started out as Imperial Concubine Ding (定嫔) in 1718 Promoted in 1724

Consort Shunyi Mi 顺懿密妃 Lady Wang 王氏 c.1675 1744 Wang Guozheng, prefect of Suzhou 苏州知县王国正 Lady Huang 黄氏 15. Prince Ke of Yu of the Second Rank 16. Prince Ke of Zhuang of the First Rank 18. Yinxie Started out as Imperial Concubine Mi (密嫔) in 1718 Promoted to Consort Mi in 1724 Became Consort Shunyi Mi in 1736

Consort Chunyu Qin 纯裕勤妃 Lady Chen 陈氏 c.1679 1753 Chen Ximin, second class imperial guard 二等侍卫陈希闵 unknown 17. Prince Yi of Guo of the First Rank Bondservant Started out as Imperial Concubine Qin (勤嫔) in 1718 Promoted to Consort Qin in 1724 Became Consort Chunyu Qin in 1736

Imperial Concubines[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Imperial Concubine An 安嫔 Lady Li 李氏 unknown unknown Gang'atai, zongbing 总兵刚阿泰 none Entered Shengzu's harem in 1671 Became Imperial Concubine An in 1677

Imperial Concubine Jing 敬嫔 Lady Wanggiya 王佳氏 unknown unknown Huashan, military officer 护军参领华善 none Became Imperial Concubine Jing in 1677

Imperial Concubine Duan 端嫔 Lady Dong 董氏 c.1653 1720 Dong Daqi, yuanwailang 员外郎董达齐 daughter Started out as ordinary consort (庶妃) Became Imperial Concubine Duan in 1677

Imperial Concubine Xi 僖嫔 Lady Hešeri 赫舍里氏 unknown 1702 Laishan 赉山 none Became Imperial Concubine Xi in 1677

Imperial Concubine Tong 通嫔 Lady Nara 纳喇氏 c.1667 1744 Changsubao, jiansheng 监生常素保 5. Princess Chunque of the First Rank Started out as ordinary consort (庶妃) Became Noble Lady (贵人) Promoted in 1724

Imperial Concubine Xiang 襄嫔 Lady Gao 高氏 c.1684 1746 Gao Tingxiu 高廷秀 19. Yinji daughter 20. Prince Jianjing of the Third Rank Started out as ordinary consort (庶妃) Became Noble Lady (贵人) in 1722 Promoted in 1736

Imperial Concubine Xi 熙嫔 Lady Chen 陈氏 1690 1737 Chen Yuqing 陈玉卿 21. Prince Jing of Shen of the Second Rank Started out as ordinary consort (庶妃) Became Noble Lady (贵人) in 1722 Promoted in 1736

Imperial Concubine Jin 谨嫔 Lady Sehetu 色赫图氏 c.1694 1739 Dorji, yuanwailang 员外郎多尔济 22. Prince Gongqin of the Third Rank Started out as ordinary consort (庶妃) Became Noble Lady (贵人) in 1722 Promoted in 1736

Imperial Concubine Jing 静嫔 Lady Shi 石氏 c.1696 1758 Shi Huaiyu 石怀玉 23. Prince Cheng of the Third Rank Started out as ordinary consort (庶妃) Became Noble Lady (贵人) in 1722 Promoted in 1736

Imperial Concubine Mu 穆嫔 Lady Chen 陈氏 c.1698 1727 Chen Qishan 陈岐山 24. Prince Ke of Xian of the First Rank Started out as ordinary consort (庶妃) Became Noble Lady (贵人) in 1722 Posthumously honoured in 1736

Minor[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Noble Lady Bu 布贵人 Lady Zhaogiya 兆佳氏 c.1656 1717 Saikesaihe, military officer 参领塞克塞赫 2. Princess Duanjing of the Second Rank

Noble Lady Go 郭贵人 Lady Gorolo 郭络罗氏 unknown unknown Sanguanbao, zuoling 佐领三官保 3. Princess Kejing of the First Rank Yinju

Noble Lady 贵人 Lady Nara 纳喇氏 c.1657 unknown Zhaoge, cavalry colonel 骁骑校昭格 Wanfu Yinzan

Lady Yuan 袁氏 c.1672 unknown unknown 7. Princess Quejing of the Second Rank

Noble Lady 贵人 Lady Chen 陈氏 c.1700 unknown Chen Xiu 陈秀 Yinyuan

Ordinary Consort 庶妃 Lady Zhang 张氏 c.1650 unknown unknown daughter daughter

Lady Wang 王氏 c.1677 unknown unknown daughter

Lady Liu 刘氏 c.1680 unknown unknown daughter

Lady Niohuru 钮祜禄氏 c.1690 unknown Jinbao, yuanwailang 员外郎晋宝 daughter

Issue[edit] Having the longest reign in Chinese history, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
also had the most children of all Qing
Qing
emperors. He had officially 24 sons and 8 daughters. The actual number is 35 sons and 20 daughters, as most of his children died from illness. Sons[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes

Chengrui 承瑞 8 Aug 1667 10 Jul 1670 Consort Rong Died young

Chenghu 承祜 4 Jan 1670 3 Mar 1672 Empress Xiaocheng Ren Died young

Chengqing 承慶 21 Mar 1670 26 May 1671 Consort Hui Died in infancy

Saiyinchahun 賽音察渾 24 Jan 1672 6 Mar 1674 Consort Rong Died young

1 Prince of the Fourth Rank 贝子 Baoqing, Yinzhi, Yunzhi 保清, 胤禔, 允禔 12 Mar 1672 7 Jan 1735 Consort Hui Granted the title Prince Zhi of the Second Rank (直郡王) in 1698 Stripped of his titles in 1708

Changhua 長華 11 May 1674 12 May 1674 Consort Rong Died in infancy

2 Prince Mi of Li of the First Rank 理密親王 Baocheng, Yinreng, Yunreng 保成, 胤礽, 允礽 6 Jun 1674 27 Jan 1725 Empress Xiaocheng Ren Designated as Crown Prince (皇太子) in 1675 and deposed in 1708 Re-designated in 1709 and deposed in 1712 Originator of the Prince of Li peerage

Changsheng 長生 12 Aug 1675 27 Apr 1677 Consort Rong Died in infancy

Wanfu 萬黼 4 Dec 1675 11 Mar 1679 Noble Lady Nara Died young

3 Prince Yin of Cheng of the Second Rank 誠隱郡王 Yinzhi, Yunzhi 胤祉, 允祉 23 Mar 1677 10 Jul 1732 Consort Rong Granted the title Prince Cheng of the Second Rank in 1698 Demoted to Prince of the Third Rank (貝勒) in 1699 Promoted to Prince Cheng of the First Rank (誠親王) in 1709 Demoted to Prince Cheng of the Second Rank in 1728 Promoted to Prince Cheng of the First Rank in 1728

4 Shizong 世宗 Yinzhen 胤禛 13 Dec 1678 8 Oct 1735 Empress Xiaogong Ren Granted the title Prince of the Third Rank (貝勒) in 1698 Promoted to Prince Yong of the First Rank (雍親王) in 1709 Became Emperor (皇帝) in 1722

Yinzan 胤禶 10 Apr 1679 30 Apr 1680 Noble Lady Nara Died in infancy

5 Prince Wen of Heng of the First Rank 恒温親王 Yinqi, Yunqi 胤祺, 允祺 5 Jan 1680 10 Jul 1732 Consort Yi Granted the title Prince of the Third Rank (貝勒) and promoted to Prince Heng of the First Rank in 1698

6

Yinzuo 胤祚 5 Mar 1680 15 Jun 1685 Empress Xiaogong Ren Died young

7 Prince Du of Chun of the First Rank 淳度親王 Yinyou, Yunyou 胤祐, 允祐 19 Aug 1680 18 May 1730 Consort Cheng Granted the title Prince of the Third Rank (貝勒) in 1698 Promoted to Prince Chun of the First Rank in 1723

8 Prince Lian of the First Rank 廉親王 Yinsi, Akina, Yunsi 胤禩, 阿其那, 允禩 29 Mar 1681 5 Oct 1726 Consort Liang Granted the title Prince of the Third Rank (貝勒) in 1698 Promoted to Prince Lian of the First Rank in 1723 Stripped of his titles in 1726

9 Prince of the Fourth Rank 貝子 Yintang, Seshe, Yuntang 胤禟, 塞思黑, 允禟 17 Oct 1683 22 Sep 1726 Consort Yi Granted the title Prince of the Fourth Rank in 1709 Stripped of his titles in 1725

10 Duke of the Second Rank 輔國公 Yin'e, Yun'e 胤䄉, 允䄉 28 Nov 1683 18 Oct 1741 Noble Consort Wenxi Granted the title Prince Dun of the Second Rank (敦郡王) in 1709 Stripped of his titles in 1724 Granted the title Duke of the Second Rank in 1737

Yinju 胤䄔 13 Sep 1683 17 Jul 1684 Noble Lady Go Died in infancy

11

Yinzi 胤禌 8 Jun 1685 22 Aug 1696 Consort Yi Died young

12 Prince Yi of Lü of the First Rank 履懿親王 Yintao, Yuntao 胤祹, 允祹 18 Jan 1686 1 Sep 1763 Consort Ding Granted the title Prince of the Fourth Rank (貝子) in 1709 Promoted to Prince Lü of the Second Rank (履郡王) in 1722 Demoted to Prince of the Fourth Rank in 1724 Promoted to Prince Lü of the Second Rank in 1730 Promoted to Prince Lü of the First Rank in 1735

13 Prince Xian of Yi of the First Rank 怡賢親王 Yunxiang, Yinxiang 允祥, 胤祥 16 Nov 1686 18 Jun 1730 Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin Granted the title Prince of the Fourth Rank (貝子) in 1709 Stripped of his titles in 1712 Granted the title Prince Yi of the First Rank in 1722 Originator of the "iron-cap" Prince of Yi peerage

14 Prince Qin of Xun of the Second Rank 恂勤郡王 Yinzhen, Yinti, Yunti 胤禎, 胤禵, 允禵 10 Feb 1688 16 Feb 1755 Empress Xiaogong Ren Granted the title Prince of the Fourth Rank (貝子) in 1709 Promoted to Prince Xun of the Second Rank in 1723 Demoted to Duke of the First Rank (鎮國公) and restored in 1725 Stripped of his titles in 1726 Restored as Duke of the First Rank in 1737 Promoted to Prince of the Third Rank (貝勒) in 1747 Promoted to Prince Xun of the Second Rank in 1748

Yinji 胤禨 23 Feb 1691 30 Mar 1691 Consort Ping Died in infancy

15 Prince Ke of Yu of the Second Rank 愉恪郡王 Yinwu, Yunwu 胤禑, 允禑 24 Dec 1693 8 Mar 1731 Consort Shunyi Mi Granted the title Prince of the Third Rank (貝勒) in 1726 Promoted to Prince Yu of the Second Rank in 1730

16 Prince Ke of Zhuang of the First Rank 莊恪親王 Yinlu, Yunlu 胤祿, 允祿 28 Jul 1695 20 Mar 1767 Inherited Boguoduo's Prince of Zhuang peerage as Prince of the First Rank in 1723

17 Prince Yi of Guo of the First Rank 果毅親王 Yinli, Yunli 胤禮, 允禮 24 Mar 1697 21 Mar 1738 Consort Chunyu Qin Granted the title Prince Guo
Prince Guo
of the Second Rank (果郡王) in 1723 Promoted to Prince Guo
Prince Guo
of the First Rank in 1728

18

Yinxie 胤祄 15 May 1701 17 Oct 1708 Consort Shunyi Mi Died young from mumps at the Chengde Mountain Resort

19

Yinji 胤禝 25 Oct 1702 28 Mar 1704 Imperial Concubine Xiang Died in infancy

20 Prince Jianjing of the Third Rank 简靖貝勒 Yinyi, Yunyi 胤禕, 允禕 1 Sep 1706 30 Jun 1755 Granted the title Prince of the Third Rank in 1726

21 Prince Jing of Shen of the Second Rank 慎靖郡王 Yinxi, Yunxi 胤禧, 允禧 27 Feb 1711 26 Jun 1758 Imperial Concubine Xi Granted the title Prince of the Fourth Rank (貝子) and promoted to Prince of the Third Rank (貝勒) in 1730 Promoted to Prince Shen of the Second Rank in 1735

22 Prince Gongqin of the Third Rank 恭勤貝勒 Yinhu, Yunhu 胤祜, 允祜 10 Jan 1712 12 Feb 1744 Imperial Concubine Jin Granted the title Prince of the Third Rank in 1730

23 Prince Cheng of the Third Rank 誠貝勒 Yinqi, Yunqi 胤祁, 允祁 14 Jan 1714 31 Aug 1785 Imperial Concubine Jing Granted the title Prince of the Third Rank in 1730

24 Prince Ke of Xian of the First Rank 𫍯恪親王 Yinmi, Yunmi 胤秘, 允秘 5 Jul 1716 3 Dec 1773 Imperial Concubine Mu Granted the title Prince Xian of the First Rank in 1733

Yinyuan 胤禐 2 Mar 1718 3 Mar 1718 Noble Lady Chen Died in infancy

Notes:

The order by which the princes were referred to and recorded on official documents were dictated by the number they were assigned by the order of birth. This order was unofficial until 1677, when the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
decreed that all of his male descendants must adhere to a "generation code" as their middle character (see Chinese name). As a result of the new system, the former order was abolished, with Yinzhi, Prince Zhi becoming the First Prince, thus the current numerical order. All of the Kangxi Emperor's sons changed their names upon the Yongzheng Emperor's accession in 1722 by modifying the first character from "胤" (yin) to "允" (yun) to avoid the nominal taboo of the emperor. Yinxiang was posthumously allowed to change his name back to Yinxiang. The Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
forced his two brothers to rename themselves, but his successor restored their names. There have been many studies on their meanings.[31][32]

Daughters[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes

unknown 23 Dec 1668 1671 Ordinary Consort Zhang none none Died young

unknown 17 Apr 1671 8 Jan 1674 Imperial Concubine Duan none none Died young

1 Princess Rongxian of the First Rank 固伦荣宪公主 unknown 20 Jun 1673 29 May 1728 Consort Rong 1691: Urgun of Baarin (巴林部乌尔衮)

Granted the title Princess Rongxian of the Second Rank (和硕荣宪公主) in 1691 Promoted in 1709

unknown 16 Mar 1674 1678 Ordinary Consort Zhang none none Died young

2 Princess Duanjing of the Second Rank 和硕端静公主 unknown 9 Jun 1674 1710 Noble Lady Bu 1692: Garzang of Kharchin (喀喇沁部噶尔臧)

Granted the title Princess Duanjing of the Second Rank in 1692

3 Princess Kejing of the First Rank 固伦恪靖公主 unknown 4 Jul 1679 1735 Noble Lady Go 1697: Dunduobudorji, Prince of the Second Rank of Khalkha (喀尔喀部郡王敦多布多尔济)

Granted the title Princess of the Second Rank (和硕公主) in 1697 Promoted in 1724

unknown 5 Jul 1682 1682 Empress Xiaogong Ren none none Died in infancy

unknown 13 Jul 1683 1683 Empress Xiaoyi Ren none none Died in infancy

4 Princess Wenxian of the First Rank 固伦温宪公主 unknown 10 Nov 1683 1702 Empress Xiaogong Ren 1700: Tunggiya Shun'anyan (佟佳•舜安颜)

Granted the title Princess Wenxian of the Second Rank (和硕温宪公主) in 1700 Posthumously honoured in 1723

5 Princess Chunque of the First Rank 固伦纯悫公主 unknown 20 Mar 1685 1710 Imperial Concubine Tong 1706: Borjigit Celeng, taiji (台吉博尔济吉特•策棱)

Granted the title Princess Chunque of the Second Rank (和硕纯悫公主) in 1706 Posthumously honoured in 1732

unknown 24 Oct 1685 1686 Noble Consort Wenxi none none Died in infancy

unknown 14 Jun 1686 1697 Empress Xiaogong Ren none none Died young

6 Princess Wenke of the Second Rank 和硕温恪公主 unknown 1 Jan 1688 1709 Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin 1706: Cangjin, Prince of the Second Rank of Onnigud (翁牛特部郡王仓津) Lady Borjigit (博尔济吉特氏) Lady Borjigit (博尔济吉特氏) Died in childbirth

7 Princess Quejing of the Second Rank 和硕悫靖公主 unknown 16 Jan 1690 1736 Noble Lady Yuan 1706: Sun Chengyun (孙承运)

Granted the title Princess Quejing of the Second Rank in 1706

8 Princess Dunke of the Second Rank 和硕敦恪公主 unknown 3 Feb 1691 1710 Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin 1709: Dorji, taiji of Khorchin (科尔沁部台吉多尔济)

unknown 27 Nov 1695 1707 Ordinary Consort Wang none none Died young

unknown 12 Jan 1699 1700 Ordinary Consort Liu none none Died in infancy

unknown 17 Nov 1701 1701 Imperial Noble Consort Dunyi none none Died in infancy

unknown 30 Mar 1703 1705 Imperial Concubine Xiang none none Died young

unknown 20 Nov 1708 1709 Ordinary Consort Niohuru none none Died in infancy

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Kangxi Emperor

4th son: Taksi of Aisin–Gioro clan, Xianzu 显祖爱新觉罗•塔克世 1543–1583

1st son: Nurhaci
Nurhaci
of Aisin–Gioro clan, Taizu 太祖爱新觉罗•努尔哈赤 1559–1626

Wife: Emeci of Hitara clan, Empress Xuan 宣皇后喜塔腊•额穆齐 d. 1569

8th son: Hong–Taiji of Aisin–Gioro clan, Taizong 太宗爱新觉罗•皇太极 1592–1643

Yangginu, Lord of Yehe 叶赫部贝勒杨吉砮 d. 1584

Wife: Monggo–Jerjer of Yehe–Nara clan, Empress Xiaoci Gao 孝慈高皇后叶赫那拉•孟古哲哲 1575–1603

9th son: Fulin of Aisin–Gioro clan, Shizu 世祖爱新觉罗•福临 1638–1661

Manggusi, Prince Fu of the First Rank of Khorchin 科尔沁部福亲王莽古思

Jaisang, Prince Zhong of the First Rank of Khorchin 科尔沁部忠亲王寨桑

Wife: Bumbutai of Borjigit clan, Empress Xiaozhuang Wen 孝庄文皇后博尔济吉特•布木布泰 1613–1688

Boli, Able Consort 贤妃博礼

3rd son: Aisin–Gioro Xuanye, Shengzu 圣祖爱新觉罗•玄烨 1654–1722

Tong Yangzhen, First Class Duke 一等公佟养真 d. 1621

Tong Tulai, First Class Duke 一等公佟图赖 1606–1658

Concubine: Lady Tunggiya, Empress Xiaokang Zhang 孝康章皇后佟佳氏 1638–1663

Lady Gioro 觉罗氏

See also[edit]

Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Notes[edit]

^ He can be viewed as the fourth emperor of the dynasty, depending on whether the dynasty's founder, Nurhaci, who used the title of Khan but was posthumously given imperial title, is to be treated as an emperor or not. ^ "Emperor Kangxi - The Emperor Who Reigned for the Longest Period in Chinese History". Cultural China. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ Magill, editor, Larissa Juliet Taylor ; editor, first edition, Frank N. (2006). Great lives from history. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press. ISBN 978-1-58765-222-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Rowe (2009), p. 63. ^ Note that Xuanye was born in May 1654, and was therefore less than seven years old at the time. Both Spence 2002 and Oxnam 1975 (p. 1) nonetheless claim that he was "seven years old." Dennerline 2002 (p. 119) and Rawski 1998 (p. 99) indicate that he was "not yet seven years old." Following East Asian age reckoning, Chinese documents concerning the succession say that Xuanye was eight sui (Oxnam 1975, p. 62). ^ Giles 1912, p. 40. ^ a b Bennet Peterson. Notable Women of China. p. 328.  ^ Manthorpe 2008, p. 108. ^ Bergman, Karl (2009), "Tainan Grand Matsu Temple", Tainan City Guide, Tainan: Word Press . ^ "Tainan Grand Matsu Temple", Chinatownology, 2015 . ^ SarDesai, D. R. (1988). Vietnam, Trials and Tribulations of a Nation, p. 38 ^ Gorelova 2002, p. 36. ^ Cordier & Pelliot 1922, p. 33. ^ 不詳 (21 August 2015). 新清史. 朔雪寒. pp. –. GGKEY:ZFQWEX019E4.  ^ H.S. Brunnert; V.V. Hagelstrom (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493–494. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9.  ^ a b c Mantienne, p. 180 '^ Les Missions Etrangeres, p. 83 ^ Manteigne, p. 178 ^ "In the Light and Shadow of an Emperor: Tomás Pereira, S.J. (1645–1708), the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and the Jesuit Mission in China", An International Symposium in Commemoration of the 3rd Centenary of the death of Tomás Pereira, S.J., Lisbon, Portugal and Macau, China, 2008, archived from the original on 2009-08-22  ^ Neill, S. (1964). A History of Christian Missions, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, pp. 189-l90 ^ Aldridge, Alfred Owen, Masayuki Akiyama, Yiu-Nam Leung. Crosscurrents in the Literatures of Asia and the West, p. 54 [1] ^ Li, Dan J., trans. (1969). China
China
in Transition, 1517–1911, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, p. 22 ^ original words:不法祖德,不遵朕训,惟肆恶虐众,暴戾淫乱 ^ 明孝陵两大“碑石之谜”被破解 Archived 18 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (Solving the two great riddles of the Ming Xiaoling's stone tablets). People's Daily, 13 June 2003. Quote regarding the Kangxi Emperor's stele text and its meaning: "清朝皇帝躬祀明朝皇帝 ... 禦書“治隆唐宋”(意思是讚揚朱元璋的功績超過了唐太宗李世民、宋高祖趙匡胤)" ^ 吕四娘刺雍正 只是个传说 Archived 21 February 2014 at Archive.is ^ Finer (1997), pp. 1134–5 ^ Spence, The Search for Modern China
China
(2013), pp. 67-68 ^ Spence, The Search for Modern China
China
(2013), pp. 56-58 ^ Finer (1997), p. 1142 ^ Finer (1997), pp. 1156–7 ^ 章曉文、陳捷先 (2001). 雍正寫真. 遠流出版公司 ^ 史松 (2009). 雍正研究/满族清代历史文化研究文库. 辽宁民族出版社

Bibliography and further reading[edit]

Cordier, Henri; Pelliot, Paul, eds. (1922). T'oung Pao (通報) or Archives. XX1. Leiden: E.J. Brill.  Dennerline, Jerry (2002), "The Shun-chih Reign", in Peterson, Willard J., Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1: The Ch'ing Dynasty
Dynasty
to 1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 73–119, ISBN 0-521-24334-3 . Finer, S. E. (1997). The History of Government from the Earliest Times. ISBN 0-19-822904-6 (three-volume set, hardback) Bennet Peterson, Barbara (2000). Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century. M.E. Sharpe, Inc.  Giles, Herbert (1912), China
China
and the Manchus, Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press  Gorelova, Liliya M., ed. (2002). Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 8 Uralic & Central Asian Studies, Manchu
Manchu
Grammar. Volume Seven Manchu
Manchu
Grammar. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 9004123075. Retrieved 6 May 2014.  Oxnam, Robert B. (1975), Ruling from Horseback: Manchu
Manchu
Politics in the Oboi
Oboi
Regency, 1661–1669, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-64244-5 . Rawski, Evelyn S. (1998), The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-22837-5 . Rowe, William T. (2009). China's Last Empire: The Great Qing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674036123.  Spence, Jonathan D. (2002), "The K'ang-hsi Reign", in Peterson, Willard J. (ed.), Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1: The Ch'ing Dynasty
Dynasty
to 1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–82, ISBN 0-521-24334-3 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) . Kangxi and Jonathan D. Spence (1975). Emperor of China: Self Portrait of K'ang Hsi. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0394714113.  Ch. 3, "Kangxi's Consolidation," in Jonathan D. Spence, The Search for Modern China
China
(New York: Norton; 3rd, 2013), pp. 48–71. Zhao, Gang (January 2006). "Reinventing China
China
Imperial Qing
Qing
Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century" (PDF). 32 (Number 1). Sage Publications. doi:10.1177/0097700405282349. JSTOR 20062627. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 

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Kangxi Emperor House of Aisin-Gioro Born: 4 May 1654 Died: 20 December 1722

Regnal titles

Preceded by The Shunzhi Emperor Emperor of China 1661–1722 Succeeded by The Yongzheng Emperor

v t e

Emperors of the Qing
Qing
dynasty

Taizu Taizong Dorgon
Dorgon
(Prince Regent) Shunzhi Kangxi Yongzheng Qianlong Jiaqing Daoguang Xianfeng Tongzhi Guangxu Xuantong

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming → Qing
Qing
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 12278028 LCCN: n81111945 ISNI: 0000 0001 1596 2948 GND: 118814273 SELIBR: 192561 SUDOC: 031242359 BNF: cb12249589r (data) NLA: 36730732 NDL: 003

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