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The KANGXI EMPEROR (4 May 1654 – 20 December 1722) was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing
Beijing
, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.

The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history (although his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor , had the longest period of de facto power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world . However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang .

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories , forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan
Taiwan
and assorted Mongol rebels in the North and Northwest to submit to Qing rule, and blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River
Amur River
, retaining Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China .

The Kangxi Emperor's reign brought about long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. He initiated the period known as the "Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong" or "High Qing", which lasted for several generations after his death. His court also accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary .

CONTENTS

* 1 Early reign

* 2 Military achievements

* 2.1 Army * 2.2 Revolt of the Three Feudatories * 2.3 Taiwan
Taiwan
* 2.4 Vietnam
Vietnam
* 2.5 Russia * 2.6 Mongolia * 2.7 Manchu
Manchu
Hoifan and Ula rebellion against the Qing * 2.8 Tibet
Tibet
* 2.9 Chinese nobility

* 3 Economic achievements * 4 Cultural achievements * 5 Christianity
Christianity
* 6 Succession disputes * 7 Death and succession * 8 Personality and achievements

* 9 Family

* 9.1 Spouses * 9.2 Sons * 9.3 Daughters

* 10 Popular culture

* 10.1 Fiction * 10.2 Film and television * 10.3 Video games

* 11 Notes * 12 Bibliography and further reading

EARLY REIGN

Portrait of the young Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
in court dress

Born on 4 May 1654 to the Shunzhi Emperor and Empress Xiaokangzhang in Jingren Palace, the Forbidden City, Beijing, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was originally given the personal name XUANYE (Chinese : 玄燁; Möllendorff transliteration : hiowan yei). He was enthroned at the age of seven (or eight by East Asian age reckoning
East Asian age reckoning
), on 7 February 1661. His era name "Kangxi", however, only started to be used on 18 February 1662, the first day of the following lunar year.

Sinologist Herbert Giles
Herbert Giles
, drawing on contemporary sources, described the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
as "fairly tall and well proportioned, he loved all manly exercises, and devoted three months annually to hunting. Large bright eyes lighted up his face, which was pitted with smallpox."

Before the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
came to the throne, Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang (in the name of Shunzhi Emperor ) had appointed the powerful men Sonin , Suksaha , Ebilun , and Oboi
Oboi
as regents . Sonin died after his granddaughter became Empress Xiaochengren , leaving Suksaha at odds with Oboi
Oboi
in politics. In a fierce power struggle, Oboi
Oboi
had Suksaha put to death and seized absolute power as sole regent. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and the rest of the imperial court acquiesced in this arrangement.

In the spring of 1662, the regents ordered a Great Clearance in southern China that evacuated the entire population from the seacoast to counter a resistance movement started by Ming loyalists under the leadership of Taiwan-based Ming general Zheng Chenggong, also titled Koxinga
Koxinga
.

In 1669, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
had Oboi
Oboi
arrested with the help of his grandmother Grand Dowager Empress Xiaozhuang , who had raised him. and began taking personal control of the empire. He listed three issues of concern: flood control of the Yellow River
Yellow River
; repair of the Grand Canal ; the Revolt of the Three Feudatories in south China. The Grand Empress Dowager influenced him greatly and he took care of her himself in the months leading up to her death in 1688.

MILITARY ACHIEVEMENTS

See also: Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in Inner Asia

ARMY

The Emperor mounted on his horse and guarded by his bodyguards .

The main army of the Qing Empire, the Eight Banners
Eight Banners
Army, was in decline under the Kangxi Emperor. It was smaller than it had been at its peak under Hong Taiji
Hong Taiji
and in the early reign of the Shunzhi Emperor ; however, it was larger than in the Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors' reigns. In addition, the Green Standard Army was still powerful with generals such as Tuhai, Fei Yanggu, Zhang Yong, Zhou Peigong, Shi Lang , Mu Zhan, Shun Shike and Wang Jingbao.

The main reason for this decline was a change in system between the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors' reigns. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
continued using the traditional military system implemented by his predecessors, which was more efficient and stricter. According to the system, a commander who returned from a battle alone (with all his men dead) would be put to death, and likewise for a foot soldier. This was meant to motivate both commanders and soldiers alike to fight valiantly in war because there was no benefit for the sole survivor in a battle. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
in ceremonial armor, armed with bow and arrows, and surrounded by bodyguards.

By the Qianlong Emperor's reign, military commanders had become lax and the training of the army was deemed less important as compared to during the previous emperors' reigns. This was because commanders' statuses had become hereditary; a general gained his position based on the contributions of his forefathers.

REVOLT OF THE THREE FEUDATORIES

Main article: Revolt of the Three Feudatories

The Revolt of the Three Feudatories broke out in 1673 when Wu Sangui 's forces overran most of southwest China and he tried to ally himself with local generals such as Wang Fuchen. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
employed generals including Zhou Peigong and Tuhai to suppress the rebellion, and also granted clemency to common people caught up in the war. He intended to personally lead the armies to crush the rebels but his subjects advised him against it. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
used mainly Han Chinese Green Standard Army soldiers to crush the rebels while the Manchu
Manchu
Banners took a backseat. The revolt ended with victory for Qing forces in 1681.

TAIWAN

Main article: Qing conquest of Taiwan
Taiwan

In 1683, the naval forces of the Ming loyalists on Taiwan —organized under the Zheng dynasty as the Kingdom of Tungning —were defeated off Penghu by 300-odd ships under the Qing admiral Shi Lang . Koxinga
Koxinga
's grandson Zheng Keshuang surrendered Tungning a few days later and Taiwan
Taiwan
became part of the Qing Empire. Zheng Keshuang moved to Beijing, joined the Qing nobility as the "Duke Haicheng" (海澄公), and was inducted into the Eight Banners
Eight Banners
as a member of the Han Plain Red Banner
Plain Red Banner
. His soldiers—including the rattan-shield troops (藤牌营, tengpaiying)—were similarly entered into the Eight Banners, notably serving against Russian Cossacks at Albazin .

A score of Ming princes had joined the Zheng dynasty on Taiwan, including Prince Zhu Shugui of Ningjing and Prince Honghuan (w:zh:朱弘桓), the son of Zhu Yihai . The Qing sent most of the 17 Ming princes still living on Taiwan
Taiwan
back to mainland China, where they spent the rest of their lives. The Prince of Ningjing and his five concubines, however, committed suicide rather than submit to capture. Their palace was used as Shi Lang's headquarters in 1683 but he memorialized the emperor to convert it into a Mazu temple
Mazu temple
as a propaganda measure in quieting remaining resistance on Taiwan. The emperor approved its dedication as the Grand Matsu Temple the next year and, honoring the goddess Mazu for her supposed assistance during the Qing invasion, promoted her to "Empress of Heaven" (Tianhou) from her previous status as a "heavenly consort" (tianfei). Belief in Mazu remains so widespread on Taiwan
Taiwan
that her annual celebrations can gather hundreds of thousands of people; she is sometimes even syncretized with Guanyin
Guanyin
and the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
.

The end of the rebel stronghold and capture of the Ming princes allowed the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
to relax the Sea Ban and permit resettlement of the Fujian
Fujian
and Guangdong
Guangdong
coasts. The financial and other incentives to new settlers particularly drew the Hakka , who would have continuous low-level conflict with the returning Punti people for the next few centuries.

VIETNAM

In 1673, the Kangxi Emperor's government helped to mediate a truce in the Trịnh–Nguyễn War in Vietnam
Vietnam
, which had been ongoing for 45 years since 1627. The peace treaty that was signed between the conflicting parties lasted for 101 years until 1774.

RUSSIA

Main article: Sino-Russian border conflicts European couple, Kangxi period

In the 1650s, the Qing Empire engaged the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
in a series of border conflicts along the Amur River
Amur River
region, which concluded with victory for the Qing side. After the Siege of Albazin , he gained control of the area.

The Russians invaded the northern frontier again in the 1680s. After a series of battles and negotiations, both sides signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689, in which a border was fixed, and the Amur River valley given to the Qing Empire.

MONGOLIA

The Inner Mongolian Chahar leader Ligdan Khan , a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing until he died of smallpox in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols under his son Ejei Khan surrendered to the Qing and he was given the title of Prince (Qin Wang, 親王). The Inner Mongolian nobility now became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu
Manchu
Qing rule, he was placed under house arrested in 1669 in Shenyang
Shenyang
and the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
gave his title to his son Borni.

Abunai bided his time then, with his brother Lubuzung, revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories , with 3,000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt. The revolt was put down within two months, the Qing defeating the rebels in battle on April 20, 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu
Manchu
Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu
Manchu
Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols were then put under the direct control of the Qing Emperor unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy.

The Outer Khalkha Mongols had preserved their independence, and only paid tribute to the Qing Empire. However, a conflict between the houses of Tümen Jasagtu Khan and Tösheetü Khan led to a dispute between the Khalkha and the Dzungars over the influence of Tibetan Buddhism . In 1688, the Dzungar chief, Galdan Boshugtu Khan , attacked the Khalkha from the west and invaded their territory. The Khalkha royal families and the first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
crossed the Gobi Desert and sought help from the Qing Empire in return for submission to Qing authority. In 1690, the Dzungars and Qing forces clashed at the Battle of Ulan Butung in Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
, in which the Qing eventually emerged as the victor. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
at the age of 45, painted in 1699

In 1696, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
personally led three armies, totaling 80,000 in strength, in a campaign against the Dzungars in the early Dzungar–Qing War . The western section of the Qing army defeated Galdan's forces at the Battle of Jao Modo and Galdan died in the following year.

MANCHU HOIFAN AND ULA REBELLION AGAINST THE QING

In 1700, some 20,000 Qiqihar Xibe were resettled in Guisui , modern Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
, and 36,000 Songyuan Xibe were resettled in Shenyang
Shenyang
, Liaoning
Liaoning
. The relocation of the Xibe from Qiqihar is believed by Liliya M. Gorelova to be linked to the Qing's annihilation of the Manchu
Manchu
clan Hoifan (Hoifa) in 1697 and the Manchu
Manchu
tribe Ula in 1703 after they rebelled against the Qing; both Hoifan and Ula were wiped out.

TIBET

In 1701, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
ordered the reconquest of Kangding and other border towns in western Sichuan
Sichuan
that had been taken by the Tibetans. The Manchu
Manchu
forces stormed Dartsedo and secured the border with Tibet
Tibet
and the lucrative tea-horse trade.

The Tibetan desi (regent) Sangye Gyatso concealed the death of the 5th Dalai Lama
5th Dalai Lama
in 1682, and only informed the emperor in 1697. He moreover kept relations with Dzungar enemies of the Qing. All this evoked the great displeasure of the Kangxi Emperor. Eventually Sangye Gyatso was toppled and killed by the Khoshut ruler Lha-bzang Khan
Lha-bzang Khan
in 1705. As a reward for ridding him of his old enemy the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
appointed Lha-bzang Khan
Lha-bzang Khan
Regent
Regent
of Tibet (翊法恭顺汗; Yìfǎ gōngshùn Hán; "Buddhism Respecting, Deferential Khan"). The Dzungar Khanate , a confederation of Oirat tribes based in parts of what is now Xinjiang , continued to threaten the Qing Empire and invaded Tibet
Tibet
in 1717. They took control of Lhasa with a 6,000 strong army and killed Lha-bzang Khan. The Dzungars held on to the city for three years and at the Battle of the Salween River defeated a Qing army sent to the region in 1718. The Qing did not take control of Lhasa
Lhasa
until 1720, when the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
sent a larger expedition force there to defeat the Dzungars.

CHINESE NOBILITY

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
granted the title of Wujing Boshi (五经博士; 五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Shao Yong , Zhu Xi , Zhuansun Shi , Ran family ( Ran Qiu , Ran Geng , Ran Yong ), Bu Shang , Yan Yan (disciple of Confucius) , and the Duke of Zhou
Duke of Zhou
's offspring.

ECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS

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The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
returning to Beijing
Beijing
after a southern inspection tour in 1689.

The contents of the national treasury during the Kangxi Emperor's reign were: 1668 (7th year of Kangxi): 14,930,000 taels 1692: 27,385,631 taels 1702–1709: approximately 50,000,000 taels with little variation during this period 1710: 45,880,000 taels 1718: 44,319,033 taels 1720: 39,317,103 taels 1721 (60th year of Kangxi, second last of his reign): 32,622,421 taels

The reasons for the declining trend in the later years of the Kangxi Emperor's reign were a huge expenditure on military campaigns and an increase in corruption. To fix the problem, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
gave Prince Yong (the future Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
) advice on how to make the economy more efficient.

CULTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS

A vase from the early Kangxi period ( Musée Guimet
Musée Guimet
).

During his reign, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
ordered the compilation of a dictionary of Chinese characters , which became known as the Kangxi Dictionary . This was seen as an attempt by the emperor to gain support from the Han Chinese scholar-bureaucrats , as many of them initially refused to serve him and remained loyal to the Ming dynasty . However, by persuading the scholars to work on the dictionary without asking them to formally serve the Qing imperial court, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
led them to gradually taking on greater responsibilities until they were assuming the duties of state officials.

In 1705, on the Kangxi Emperor's order, a compilation of Tang poetry , the Quantangshi , was produced.

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
also was interested in Western technology and wanted to import them to China. This was done through Jesuit missionaries , such as Ferdinand Verbiest , whom the Kangxi Emperor frequently summoned for meetings, or Karel Slavíček , who made the first precise map of Beijing
Beijing
on the emperor's order.

From 1711 to 1723, Matteo Ripa , an Italian priest sent to China by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
, worked as a painter and copper-engraver at the Qing court. In 1723, he returned to Naples
Naples
from China with four young Chinese Christians, in order to groom them to become priests and send them back to China as missionaries. This marked the beginning of the Collegio dei Cinesi, sanctioned by Pope Clement XII
Pope Clement XII
to help the propagation of Christianity in China. This Chinese Institute was the first school of Sinology in Europe
Europe
, which would later develop to become the Istituto Orientale and the present day Naples
Naples
Eastern University .

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was also the first Chinese emperor to play a western musical instrument. He employed Karel Slavíček as court musician. Slavíček was playing Spinet
Spinet
; later the emperor would play on it himself. He also invented a Chinese calendar. China's famed blue and white porcelain probably reached its zenith during the Kangxi Emperor's reign.

CHRISTIANITY

Main article: Chinese Rites controversy Jesuit astronomers of the Jesuit China missions
Jesuit China missions
, with the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
( Beauvais
Beauvais
, 1690–1705)

In the early decades of the Kangxi Emperor's reign, Jesuits played a large role in the imperial court. With their knowledge of astronomy , they ran the imperial observatory. Jean-François Gerbillon and Thomas Pereira served as translators for the negotiations of the Treaty of Nerchinsk . The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was grateful to the Jesuits for their contributions, the many languages they could interpret, and the innovations they offered his military in gun manufacturing and artillery , the latter of which enabled the Qing Empire to conquer the Kingdom of Tungning
Kingdom of Tungning
.

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was also fond of the Jesuits' respectful and unobtrusive manner; they spoke the Chinese language
Chinese language
well, and wore the silk robes of the elite. In 1692, when Fr. Thomas Pereira requested tolerance for Christianity
Christianity
, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was willing to oblige, and issued the Edict of Toleration, which recognized Catholicism
Catholicism
, barred attacks on their churches, and legalized their missions and the practice of Christianity
Christianity
by the Chinese people
Chinese people
.

However, controversy arose over whether Chinese Christians could still take part in traditional Confucian ceremonies and ancestor worship , with the Jesuits arguing for tolerance and the Dominicans taking a hard-line against foreign "idolatry ". The Dominican position won the support of Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI
, who in 1705 sent Charles-Thomas Maillard De Tournon as his representative to the Kangxi Emperor, to communicate the ban on Chinese rites. On 19 March 1715, Pope Clement XI issued the papal bull Ex illa die, which officially condemned Chinese rites.

In response, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
officially forbade Christian missions in China, as they were "causing trouble".

SUCCESSION DISPUTES

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
on a tour, seated prominently on the deck of a junk .

The Kangxi Emperor's reign saw a prolonged struggle between various princes over who should inherit the throne – the Nine Lords' War (九子夺嫡).

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The Kangxi Emperor's first spouse, Empress Xiaochengren , gave birth to his second surviving son Yinreng , who at the age of two was named crown prince – a Han Chinese custom, to ensure stability during a time of chaos in the south. Although the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
left the education of several of his sons to others, he personally oversaw the upbringing of Yinreng, grooming him to be a perfect successor. Yinreng was tutored by the mandarin Wang Shan, who remained devoted to him, and spent the later years of his life trying to persuade the Kangxi Emperor to restore Yinreng as the crown prince.

Yinreng proved to be unworthy of the succession despite his father showing favoritism towards him. He was said to have beaten and killed his subordinates, and was alleged to have had sexual relations with one of his father's concubines, which was deemed incest and a capital offence. Yinreng also purchased young children from Jiangsu
Jiangsu
to satisfy his pedophiliac pleasure. In addition, Yinreng's supporters, led by Songgotu , gradually formed a "Crown Prince Party" (太子黨), that aimed to help Yinreng get the throne as soon as possible, even if it meant using unlawful methods. The seated Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor

Over the years, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
kept constant watch over Yinreng and became aware of his son's many flaws, while their relationship gradually deteriorated. In 1707, the emperor decided that he could no longer tolerate Yinreng's behavior, which he partially mentioned in the imperial edict as "never obeying ancestors' virtues, never obliged to my order, only doing inhumanity and devilry, only showing maliciousness and lust", and decided to strip Yinreng of his position as crown prince. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
placed his oldest surviving son, Yinzhi , in charge of overseeing Yinreng's house arrest . Yinzhi, an unfavored Shu son , knowing he had no chance of being selected, recommended the eighth prince, Yinsi, and requested his father to order Yinreng's execution. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was enraged and stripped Yinzhi of his titles. The emperor then commanded his subjects to cease debating the succession issue, but despite this and attempts to reduce rumours and speculation as to who the new crown prince might be, the imperial court's daily activities were disrupted. Yinzhi's actions caused the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
to suspect that Yinreng might have been framed, so he restored Yinreng as crown prince in 1709, with the support of the 4th and 13th princes, and on the excuse that Yinreng had previously acted under the influence of mental illness. A turtle-based stele with the Kangxi Emperor's inscription, erected in 1699 at the Nanjing
Nanjing
mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor , honouring the founder of the preceding Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
as surpassing the founders of the Tang and Song dynasties.

In 1712, during the Kangxi Emperor's last inspection tour of the south, Yinreng, who was put in charge of state affairs during his father's absence, tried to vie for power again with his supporters. He allowed an attempt at forcing the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
to abdicate when his father returned to Beijing
Beijing
. However, the emperor received news of the planned coup d\'etat , and was so angry that he deposed Yinreng and placed him under house arrest again. After the incident, the emperor announced that he would not appoint any of his sons as crown prince for the remainder of his reign. He stated that he would place his Imperial Valedictory Will inside a box in the Palace of Heavenly Purity , which would only be opened after his death.

Seeing that Yinreng was completely disavowed, Yingsi and some other princes turned to support the 14th prince, Yinti, while the 13th prince supported Yinzhen. They formed the so-called "Eighth Lord Party" (八爷党) and "Fourth Lord Party" (四爷党).

DEATH AND SUCCESSION

Following the deposition of the crown prince, the Kangxi Emperor implemented groundbreaking changes in the political landscape. The 13th prince, Yinxiang , was placed under house arrest as well for cooperating with Yinreng . The eighth prince Yinsi was stripped of all his titles and only had them restored years later. The 14th prince Yinti , whom many considered to be the most likely candidate to succeed the Kangxi Emperor, was sent on a military campaign during the political conflict. Yinsi, along with the ninth and tenth princes, Yintang and Yin'e, pledged their support to Yinti.

In the evening of 20 December 1722 before his death, the Kangxi Emperor called seven of his sons to assemble at his bedside. They were the third, fourth, eight, ninth, tenth, 16th and 17th princes. After the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
died, Longkodo announced that the emperor had selected the fourth prince, Yinzhen, as the new emperor. Yinzhen ascended to the throne and became known as the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was entombed at the Eastern Tombs in Zunhua , Hebei
Hebei
.

A legend concerning the Kangxi Emperor's will states that he chose Yinti as his heir, but Yinzhen forged the will in his own favour. It has, however, long been refuted by serious historians. Yinzhen, later the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
, has attracted many rumours, and some novel-like private books claim he did not die of illness but was assassinated by a swordswoman, Lü Siniang (吕四娘), the granddaughter of Lü Liuliang , though this is never treated seriously by scholars.

PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENTS

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was the great consolidator of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
. The transition from the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
to the Qing was a cataclysm whose central event was the fall of the capital Beijing
Beijing
to the peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng
Li Zicheng
, then to the Manchus in 1644, and the installation of the five-year-old Shunzhi Emperor on their throne. By 1661, when the Shunzhi Emperor died and was succeeded by the Kangxi Emperor, the Qing conquest of China proper was almost complete. Leading Manchus were already using Chinese institutions and mastering Confucian ideology, while maintaining Manchu
Manchu
culture among themselves. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
completed the conquest, suppressed all significant military threats and revived the central government system inherited from the Ming with important modifications.

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was a workaholic, rising early and retiring late, reading and responding to numerous memorials every day, conferring with his councilors and giving audiences – and this was in normal times; in wartime, he might be reading memorials from the warfront until after midnight or even, as with the Dzungar conflict, away on campaign in person.

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
devised a system of communication that circumvented the scholar-bureaucrats , who had a tendency to usurp the power of the emperor. This Palace Memorial System involved the transfer of secret messages between him and trusted officials in the provinces, where the messages were contained in locked boxes that only he and the official had access to. This started as a system for receiving uncensored extreme-weather reports, which the emperor regarded as divine comments on his rule. However, it soon evolved into a general-purpose secret "news channel." Out of this emerged a Grand Council , which dealt with extraordinary, especially military, events. The council was chaired by the emperor and manned by his more elevated Han Chinese and Manchu
Manchu
household staff. From this council, the mandarin civil servants were excluded – they were left only with routine administration.

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
managed to woo the Confucian intelligentsia into co-operating with the Qing government, despite their deep reservations about Manchu
Manchu
rule and loyalty to the Ming. He appealed to this very sense of Confucian values, for instance, by issuing the Sacred Edict in 1670. He encouraged Confucian learning and made sure that the civil service examinations were held every three years even during times of stress. When some scholars, out of loyalty to the Ming, refused to take the exams, he hit upon the expedient of a special exam to be taken by nomination. He personally sponsored the writing of the Ming Official History , the Kangxi Dictionary , a phrase-dictionary, a vast encyclopedia and an even vaster compilation of Chinese literature
Chinese literature
. To promote his image as a "sage ruler," he appointed Manchu
Manchu
and Chinese tutors with whom he studied the Confucian classics and worked intensively on Chinese calligraphy.

In the one military campaign in which he actively participated, against the Dzungar Mongols, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
showed himself an effective military commander. According to Finer, the emperor's own written reflections allow one to experience "how intimate and caring was his communion with the rank-and-file, how discriminating and yet masterful his relationship with his generals".

As a result of the scaling down of hostilities as peace returned to China after the Manchu
Manchu
conquest, and also as a result of the ensuing rapid increase of population, land cultivation and therefore tax revenues based on agriculture, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
was able first to make tax remissions, then in 1712 to freeze the land tax and corvée altogether, without embarrassing the state treasury (although the dynasty eventually suffered from this fiscal policy).

FAMILY

* Father: Shunzhi Emperor * Mother: Empress Xiaokangzhang (1640–1663). Her family was of Jurchen origin but had lived among the Han Chinese for generations and assimilated with them into Han Chinese society and culture. It adopted a Han Chinese family name, Tong (佟), but converted to the Manchu clan name Tongiya later. She was instated as the Empress Dowager Cihe (慈和皇太后) in 1661 when the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
ascended the throne. She is known posthumously as Empress Xiaokangzhang (Chinese : 孝康章皇后; Manchu
Manchu
: Hiyoošungga Nesuken Eldembuhe Hūwanghu).

SPOUSES

See also: Ranks of imperial consorts in China § Qing

The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
had an estimated 64 spouses in total. Note that not all of them are listed in the table below. Empresses

TITLE / POSTHUMOUS TITLE NAME BORN DIED FATHER NOTES

Empress Xiaochengren 孝誠仁皇后 Lady Hešeri 赫舍里氏 26 November 1653 16 June 1674 Gabula , a son of Sonin of the Hešeri clan Married the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
in 1665 and became Empress in the same year

Empress Xiaozhaoren 孝昭仁皇后 Lady Niohuru 鈕祜祿氏 1653 18 March 1678 Ebilun of the Niohuru clan Became Empress on 18 September 1677

Empress Xiaoyiren 孝懿仁皇后 Lady Tunggiya 佟佳氏 unknown 24 August 1689 Tong Guowei (佟國維) of the Tunggiya clan Promoted to Imperial Noble Consort in 1681; Became Empress in 1689

Empress Xiaogongren 孝恭仁皇后 Lady Uya 烏雅氏 1660 1723 Weiwu (威武) of the Uya clan Promoted to Imperial Concubine in 1679; Promoted to Consort in 1682; Became Empress Dowager Renshou (仁壽皇太后) in 1722

Imperial Noble Consorts

TITLE / POSTHUMOUS TITLE NAME BORN DIED FATHER NOTES

Imperial Noble Consort Quehui 愨惠皇貴妃 Lady Tunggiya 佟佳氏 1668 1743 Tong Guowei (佟國維) of the Tunggiya clan Empress Xiaoyiren's younger sister; Promoted to Noble Consort in 1700; Promoted to Dowager Imperial Noble Consort (皇考皇貴妃) in 1724; Promoted to Grand Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Shouqi (皇祖壽祺皇貴太妃) in 1736

Imperial Noble Consort Dunyi 惇怡皇貴妃 Lady Gūwalgiya 瓜爾佳氏 1683 1768 Yuman (裕滿) of the Gūwalgiya clan Known as Imperial Concubine He (和嬪) and later as Consort He (和妃) during the Kangxi era; Promoted to Dowager Noble Consort (皇考貴妃) during the Yongzheng era; Promoted to Grand Dowager Noble Consort Wenhui (皇祖溫惠貴太妃) and later to Grand Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Wenhui (皇祖溫惠皇貴太妃) during the Qianlong era

Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin 敬敏皇貴妃 Lady Janggiya 章佳氏 unknown 1699 Haikuan (海寬) of the Janggiya clan

Noble Consorts

TITLE / POSTHUMOUS TITLE NAME BORN DIED FATHER NOTES

Noble Consort Wenxi 溫僖貴妃 Lady Niohuru 鈕祜祿氏 unknown 1694 Ebilun of the Niohuru clan Empress Xiaozhaoren's younger sister

Consorts

TITLE / POSTHUMOUS TITLE NAME BORN DIED FATHER NOTES

Consort Shunyimi 順懿密妃 Lady Wang 王氏 unknown 1744 Wang Guozheng (王國正), the prefect of Suzhou
Suzhou
Promoted to Imperial Concubine Mi (密嬪) in 1718; Promoted to Dowager Consort Mi (皇考密妃) during the Yongzheng era; Promoted to Grand Dowager Consort Shunyimi (皇祖順懿密太妃) during the Qianlong era

Consort Chunyuqin 純裕勤妃 Lady Chen 陳氏 unknown 1753 Chen Ximin (陳希敏), a second-class imperial guard Promoted to Imperial Concubine Qin (勤嬪) in 1718; Promoted to Dowager Consort Qin (皇考勤妃) during the Yongzheng era; Promoted to Grand Dowager Consort Chunyuqin (皇祖純裕勤太妃) during the Qianlong era

Consort Hui 惠妃 Lady Nara 那拉氏 unknown 1732 Suo'erhe (索爾和) of the Nara clan Promoted to Imperial Concubine (惠嬪) in 1677; Promoted to Consort Hui in 1681

Consort Yi 宜妃 Lady Gorolo 郭絡羅氏 unknown 1733 Sanguanbao (三官保) of the Gorolo clan Promoted to Imperial Concubine Yi (宜嬪) in 1677; Promoted to Consort Yi in 1681

Consort Rong 榮妃 Lady Magiya 馬佳氏 unknown 1727 Gaishan (蓋山) of the Magiya clan Promoted to Imperial Concubine Rong in 1677; Promoted to Consort Rong in 1681; Bore the most children among the Kangxi Emperor's consorts

Consort Ding 定妃 Lady Wanliuha 萬琉哈氏 1661 24 May 1757 Tuo'erbi (拖爾弼) of the Wanliuhua clan Promoted to Imperial Concubine Ding (定嬪) in 1718; Promoted to Dowager Consort Ding (皇考定妃) during the Yongzheng era

Consort Xuan 宣妃 Lady Borjigit 博爾濟吉特氏 unknown 12 September 1736 Heta (和塔), a Khorchin Mongol prince from the Borjigit clan Niece of the Shunzhi Emperor's Consort Dao (悼妃); Promoted to Consort Xuan in 1718

Consort Cheng 成妃 Lady Daigiya 戴佳氏 unknown unknown Zhuoqi (卓奇) of the Daigiya clan Promoted to Consort Cheng in 1718

Consort Liang 良妃 Lady Wei 衛氏 unknown 29 December 1711 Abunai (阿布鼐), a Chahar Mongol prince who was executed

Consort Ping 平妃 Lady Hešeri 赫舍里氏 unknown 1696 Gabula , a son of Sonin of the Hešeri clan Empress Xiaochengren's younger sister

Consort Hui 慧妃 Lady Borjigit 博爾濟吉特氏 unknown 1670 Ayuxi (阿郁錫), a third class taiji from the Khorchin Mongol Borjigit clan Distant niece of the Kangxi Emperor's grandmother, Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang

Imperial Concubines

TITLE / POSTHUMOUS TITLE NAME BORN DIED FATHER NOTES

Imperial Concubine An 安嬪 Lady Li 李氏 unknown unknown Gang'atai (剛阿泰), a son of Li Yongfang Promoted to Imperial Concubine in 1677

Imperial Concubine Jing 敬嬪 Lady Janggiya 章佳氏 unknown unknown Huashan (華善), a military officer Promoted to Imperial Concubine in 1677

Imperial Concubine Duan 端嬪 Lady Dong 董氏 unknown unknown Dong Daqi (董達齊) Promoted to Imperial Concubine in 1677

Imperial Concubine Xi 僖嬪 Lady Hešeri 赫舍里氏 unknown 1702 Laishan (賚山) of the Hešeri clan Promoted to Imperial Concubine in 1677

Imperial Concubine Tong 通嬪 Lady Nara 納喇氏 unknown 1744 Changsudai (常素代) of the Nara clan Held the rank of Noble Lady during the Kangxi era; Promoted to Dowager Imperial Concubine Tong (皇考通嬪) in 1724 during the Yongzheng era

Imperial Concubine Xiang 襄嬪 Lady Gao 高氏 unknown 1746 Gao Tingxiu (高廷秀) Held the rank of Ordinary Consort during the Kangxi era; Promoted to Dowager Noble Lady (皇考貴人) in 1722 by the Yongzheng Emperor; Promoted to Grand Dowager Imperial Concubine Xiang (皇祖襄嬪) in 1736 by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor

Imperial Concubine Jin 謹嬪 Lady Sehetu 色赫圖氏 unknown 1739 Dorji (多爾濟) of the Sehetu clan Promoted to Dowager Noble Lady (皇考貴人) in 1722 by the Yongzheng Emperor; Promoted to Grand Dowager Imperial Concubine Jin (皇祖謹嬪) in 1736 by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor

Imperial Concubine Jing 靜嬪 Lady Shi 石氏 unknown 1758 Shi Huaiyu (石懷玉) Held the rank of an Ordinary Consort during the Kangxi era; Promoted to Dowager Noble Lady (皇考貴人) in 1722 by the Yongzheng Emperor; Promoted to Grand Dowager Imperial Concubine Jing (皇祖靜嬪) in 1736 by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor

Imperial Concubine Xi 熙嬪 Lady Chen 陳氏 unknown 1737 Chen Yuqing (陳玉卿) Promoted to Dowager Noble Lady (皇考貴人) in 1722 by the Yongzheng Emperor; Promoted to Grand Dowager Imperial Concubine Xi (皇祖熙嬪) in 1736 by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor

Imperial Concubine Mu 穆嬪 Lady Chen 陳氏 unknown 1727 Chen Qishan (陳岐山) Promoted to Dowager Noble Lady (皇考貴人) in 1722 by the Yongzheng Emperor; Posthumously honoured as Grand Dowager Imperial Concubine Mu (皇祖穆嬪) in 1736 by the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor

Noble Ladies

TITLE NAME BORN DIED FATHER NOTES

Noble Lady 貴人 Lady Gorolo 郭絡羅氏 unknown unknown Sanguanbao (三官保) of the Gorolo clan Consort Yi's younger sister

Lady Zhaogiya 兆佳氏 unknown 1717 Saikesaihe (塞克塞赫), a military officer

Lady Yuan 袁氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Yi 易氏 unknown 1728 unknown

Lady Chen 陳氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Nara 納喇氏 unknown unknown Nadanzhu (那丹珠) of the Nara clan

Lady Nara 納喇氏 unknown unknown Zhaoge (昭格), a cavalry colonel

Lady Xin 新氏 unknown 1716 unknown

Lady Ma 馬氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Yin 尹氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Le 勒氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Wen 文氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Lan 藍氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Chang 常氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Su 蘇氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Xian 仙氏 unknown unknown unknown

Ordinary Consorts

TITLE NAME BORN DIED FATHER NOTES

Ordinary Consort 庶妃 Lady Niohuru 鈕祜祿氏 unknown unknown Jinbao (晉寶) of the Niohuru clan

Lady Zhang 張氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Wang 王氏 unknown unknown unknown

Lady Liu 劉氏 unknown unknown unknown

First Class Female Attendants (Changzai) and Second Class Female Attendants (Daying)

NAME / TITLE BORN DIED FATHER NOTES

Changzai Yin 尹常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Se 色常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Lu 路常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Shou 壽常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Chang 常常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Rui 瑞常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Gui 貴常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Xu 徐常在 unknown 1702 unknown

Changzai Shi 石常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Niu 牛常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Zha 查常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Yao 堯常在 unknown unknown unknown

Changzai Nei 內常在 unknown unknown unknown

Daying Ling 靈答應 unknown unknown unknown

Daying Chun 春答應 unknown unknown unknown

Daying Xiao 曉答應 unknown unknown unknown

Daying Qing 慶答應 unknown unknown unknown

Daying Xiu 秀答應 unknown unknown unknown

Daying Zhi 治答應 unknown unknown unknown

Daying Miao 妙答應 unknown unknown unknown

Daying Niu 牛答應 unknown 1702 unknown

Daying Shuang 雙答應 unknown unknown unknown

Daying Cai 采答應 unknown unknown unknown

SONS

Having the longest reign in Chinese history, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
also had the most children of all Qing emperors. He had officially 24 sons and 12 daughters. The actual number is higher, as most of his children died from illness.

#1 TITLE / POSTHUMOUS TITLE NAME2 BORN DIED MOTHER NOTES

Chengrui 承瑞 5 November 1667 10 July 1670 Consort Rong Died young

Chenghu 承祜 4 January 1670 3 March 1672 Empress Xiaochengren Died young

Chengqing 承慶 21 March 1670 26 May 1671 Consort Hui Died young

Sayinchahun 賽音察渾 24 January 1672 6 March 1674 Consort Rong Died young

1

Yinzhi 胤禔 12 March 1672 7 January 1735 Consort Hui Enfeoffed as PRINCE ZHI OF THE SECOND RANK (直郡王) in 1698; Stripped of his title in 1708; Buried with honours befitting a beizi

Changhua 長華 11 May 1674 12 May 1674 Consort Rong Died young

2 Prince Limi of the First Rank 理密親王 Yinreng 胤礽 6 June 1674 27 January 1725 Empress Xiaochengren Original name Baocheng (保成); Designated as Crown Prince in 1675 and deposed in 1708; Re-designated as Crown Prince in 1709 but deposed again in 1712

Changsheng 長生 12 August 1675 27 April 1677 Consort Rong Died young

Wanpu 萬黼 4 December 1675 11 March 1679 Imperial Concubine Tong Died young

3 Prince Chengyin of the Second Rank 誠隱郡王 Yinzhi 胤祉 23 March 1677 10 July 1732 Consort Rong Made a junwang in 1698; Demoted to beile in 1699; Promoted to qinwang in 1709; Demoted to junwang again in 1728; Promoted to qinwang again in 1728

4 Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
雍正帝 YINZHEN 胤禛 13 December 1678 8 October 1735 Empress Xiaogongren Made a beile in 1698; Promoted to Prince Yong of the First Rank (雍親王) in 1709; Enthroned on 27 December 1722

Yinzan 胤禶 10 April 1679 30 April 1680 Imperial Concubine Tong Died young

5 Prince Hengwen of the First Rank 恆溫親王 Yinqi 胤祺 5 January 1680 10 July 1732 Consort Yi Made a beile in 1698; Promoted to qinwang in 1698

6

Yinzuo 胤祚 5 March 1680 15 June 1685 Empress Xiaogongren Died young

7 Prince Chundu of the First Rank 淳度親王 Yinyou 胤祐 19 August 1680 18 May 1730 Consort Cheng Made a beile in 1698; Promoted to junwang in 1709; Promoted to qinwang in May 1723

8

Yinsi 胤禩 29 March 1681 5 October 1726 Consort Liang Made a beile in 1698; Promoted to Prince Lian of the First Rank (廉親王) in 1723; Stripped of his title and expelled from the Aisin Gioro clan in 1726; Forced to rename himself AKINA (阿其那); Posthumously rehabilitated and restored to the Aisin Gioro clan in 1778

Yinju 胤䄔 13 September 1683 17 July 1684 Noble Lady Gorolo Died young

9

Yintang 胤禟 17 October 1683 22 September 1726 Consort Yi Made a beizi in 1709; Stripped of his title and expelled from the Aisin Gioro clan in 1725; Forced to rename himself SESIHEI (塞思黑); Posthumously rehabilitated and restored to the Aisin Gioro clan in 1778

10

Yin\'e 胤䄉 28 November 1683 18 October 1741 Noble Consort Wenxi Made PRINCE DUN OF THE SECOND RANK (敦郡王) in 1709; Stripped of his title in 1724; Made a fuguo gong in 1737; Buried with honours befitting a beizi

11

Yinzi 胤禌 8 June 1685 22 August 1696 Consort Yi Died young

12 Prince Lüyi of the First Rank 履懿親王 Yintao 胤祹 18 January 1686 2 September 1763 Consort Ding Made a beizi in 1709; Promoted to junwang in 1722; Demoted to beizi in 1724; Promoted to junwang in 1730; Promoted to qinwang in 1735

13 Prince Yixian of the First Rank 怡賢親王 Yinxiang 胤祥 16 November 1686 18 June 1730 Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin Made a beizi in 1709; Stripped of his title in 1712; Made a qinwang in 1722

14 Prince Xunqin of the Second Rank 恂勤郡王 Yinti 胤禵 16 January 1688 13 January 1756 Empress Xiaogongren Born Yinzhen (胤禎); Made a beizi in 1709; Promoted to junwang in 1723; Demoted to feng\'en zhenguo gong and later restored as a beizi in 1725; Stripped of his title in 1726; Restored as a feng'en zhenguo gong in 1737; Promoted to beile in 1747; Promoted to junwang in 1748

Yinji 胤禨 23 February 1691 30 March 1691 Consort Ping Died young

15 Prince Yuke of the Second Rank 愉恪郡王 Yinxu 胤禑 24 December 1693 8 March 1731 Consort Shunyimi Made a beile in 1726; Promoted to junwang in 1730

16 Prince Zhuangke of the First Rank 莊恪親王 Yinlu 胤祿 28 July 1695 20 March 1767 Consort Shunyimi Adopted by Boguoduo Inherited the Prince Zhuang peerage in 1723

17 Prince Guoyi of the First Rank 果毅親王 Yinli 胤禮 24 March 1697 21 March 1738 Consort Chunyuqin Made a junwang in 1723; Promoted to qinwang in 1728

18

Yinxie 胤祄 15 May 1701 17 October 1708 Consort Shunyimi Died at the Chengde Mountain Resort
Chengde Mountain Resort
from mumps

19

Yinji 胤禝 25 October 1702 28 March 1704 Imperial Concubine Xiang Died young

20 Jianjing Beile 簡靖貝勒 Yinyi 胤禕 1 September 1706 30 June 1755 Imperial Concubine Xiang Made a beile in 1726

21 Prince Shenjing of the Second Rank 慎靖郡王 Yinxi 胤禧 27 February 1711 26 June 1758 Imperial Concubine Xi Made a beizi in 1730; Promoted to beile in 1730; Promoted to junwang in December 1735

22 Gongqin Beile 恭勤貝勒 Yinhu 胤祜 10 January 1712 12 February 1744 Imperial Concubine Jin Made a beile in 1730

23 Cheng Beile 誠貝勒 Yinqi 胤祁 14 January 1714 31 August 1785 Imperial Concubine Jing Made a beile in 1730

24 Prince Xianke of the First Rank 諴恪親王 Yinmi 胤祕 5 July 1716 3 December 1773 Imperial Concubine Mu Made a qinwang in 1733

Yinyuan 胤禐 2 March 1718 2/3 March 1718 Noble Lady Chen Died in infancy

* Notes: (1) The order by which the princes were referred to and recorded on official documents were dictated by the number they were assigned by the order of birth. This order was unofficial until 1677, when the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
decreed that all of his male descendants must adhere to a "generation code" as their middle character (see Chinese name ). As a result of the new system, the former order was abolished, with Yinzhi, Prince Zhi becoming the First Prince, thus the current numerical order. (2) All of the Kangxi Emperor's sons changed their names upon the Yongzheng Emperor's accession in 1722 by modifying the first character from "胤" (yin) to "允" (yun) to avoid the nominal taboo of the emperor. Yinxiang was posthumously allowed to change his name back to Yinxiang. The Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
forced his two brothers to rename themselves, but his successor restored their names. There have been many studies on their meanings.

DAUGHTERS

# TITLE / POSTHUMOUS TITLE BORN DIED MOTHER SPOUSE NOTES

1 unnamed 23 December 1668 November 1671 Ordinary Consort Zhang

Died young

2 unnamed 17 April 1671 8 January 1674 Ordinary Consort Dong

Died young

3 Gulun Princess Rongxian 固倫榮憲公主 20 June 1673 29 May 1728 Consort Rong Urgun (烏爾袞; d. 1721) of the Borjigit clan and Baarin Right Banner , married in July 1691

4 unnamed 16 March 1674 1678 Ordinary Consort Zhang

Died young

5 Heshuo Princess Duanjing 和碩端靜公主 9 June 1674 April 1710 Noble Lady Zhaogiya Garzang (噶爾臧; 1675–1722) of the Ulanghan clan (烏梁罕氏), married in November 1692

6 Gulun Princess Kejing 固倫恪靖公主 4 July 1679 1735 Noble Lady Gorolo Dunduobudorji (敦多布多爾濟; d. 1743) of the Borjigit clan , married in 1697

7 unnamed 5 July 1682 September 1682 Empress Xiaogongren

Died in infancy

8 unnamed 13 July 1683 July or August 1683 Empress Xiaoyiren

Died in infancy

9 Gulun Princess Wenxian 固倫溫憲公主 10 November 1683 August or September 1702 Empress Xiaogongren Shun'anyan (舜安顏; d. 1724) of the Tunggiya clan (佟佳氏), married in October or November 1700

10 Gulun Princess Chunque 固倫純愨公主 20 March 1685 1710 Imperial Concubine Tong Celeng (策棱; 1672–1750) of the Borjigit clan , married in 1706 Bore Celeng a son, Chenggunzhabu (成袞扎布; d. 1771)

11 unnamed 24 October 1685 June or July 1686 Noble Consort Wenxi

Died in infancy

12 unnamed 14 June 1686 late February or March 1697 Empress Xiaogongren

Died young

13 Heshuo Princess Wenke 和碩溫恪公主 1 January 1688 July or August 1709 Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin Cangjin (倉津) of the Borjigit clan , married in 1706 Bore Cangjin two daughters

14 Heshuo Princess Quejing 和碩愨靖公主 16 January 1690 1736 Noble Lady Yuan Sun Chengyun (孫承運; d. 1719), married in 1706

15 Heshuo Princess Dunke 和碩敦恪公主 3 February 1691 January 1710 Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin Dorji (多爾濟) of the Borjigit clan , married in January or February 1709

16 unnamed 27 November 1695 October or November 1707 Ordinary Consort Wang

Died young

17 unnamed 12 January 1699 December 1700 Ordinary Consort Liu

Died in infancy

18 unnamed 17 November 1701 unknown Imperial Noble Consort Dunyi

Died young

19 unnamed 30 March 1703 late February or March 1705 Imperial Concubine Xiang

Died young

20 unnamed 20 November 1708 January or early February 1709 Ordinary Consort Niohuru

Died in infancy

POPULAR CULTURE

FICTION

* Kangxi Dadi (康熙大帝; The Great Kangxi Emperor), a historical novel by Er Yuehe which romanticises the Kangxi Emperor's life. * The Deer and the Cauldron (鹿鼎記), a wuxia novel by Louis Cha . In the story, by coincidence, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and the protagonist, Wei Xiaobao , become close friends in their childhood. Wei helps the emperor consolidate his rule over the Qing Empire and plays an important role in affecting how significant historical events during the Kangxi era unfold. * Qijian Xia Tianshan (七劍下天山; Seven Swords Descend from Mount Heaven), a wuxia novel by Liang Yusheng . In the story, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
discovers that his father, the Shunzhi Emperor , has become a monk in a monastery on Mount Wutai
Mount Wutai
. He orders a close aide to kill his father in order to consolidate power, and attempts to erase evidence of the murder later.

FILM AND TELEVISION

* The Deer and the Cauldron (1984), a Hong Kong television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Andy Lau as the Kangxi Emperor. * The Deer and the Cauldron (1998), a Hong Kong television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Steven Ma as the Kangxi Emperor. * Kangxi Dynasty
Dynasty
(2001), a Chinese television series adapted from Er Yuehe's novel The Great Kangxi Emperor, starring Chen Daoming as the Kangxi Emperor. * Secret History of Kangxi (康熙秘史) (2006), the fourth instalment in a four-part Chinese television series about the early history of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, starring Xia Yu as the Kangxi Emperor. * Records of Kangxi\'s Travel Incognito (1998–2007), a five-season Chinese television series about the Kangxi Emperor's inspection tours to southern China. During some of his tours, the emperor disguised himself as a commoner to conceal his identity so that he can blend into society and understand commoners' daily lives better. Zhang Guoli starred as the Kangxi Emperor. * The Deer and the Cauldron (2008), a Chinese television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Wallace Chung as the Kangxi Emperor. * The Life and Times of a Sentinel (2011), a Hong Kong television series about Fuquan attempting to overthrow the Kangxi Emperor, starring Power Chan as the Kangxi Emperor. * Palace (2011), a Chinese television series set in the Kangxi era of the Qing dynasty. A woman from the 21st century accidentally travels back in time to the 18th century. Kent Tong portrayed the Kangxi Emperor. * Scarlet Heart (2011), a Chinese television series set in the Kangxi era of the Qing dynasty. A woman from the 21st century accidentally travels back in time to the 18th century. Damian Lau portrayed the Kangxi Emperor. * The Deer and the Cauldron (2014), a Chinese television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Wei Qianxiang as the Kangxi Emperor. * Gilded Chopsticks (2014), a Hong Kong television series about a chef who befriends Yinzhen (the future Yongzheng Emperor) and aids him in the power struggle for the succession. Elliot Ngok portrayed the Kangxi Emperor. * Chronicle of Life (2016), a Chinese television series about a romance between the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and his childhood love. Hawick Lau portrayed the Emperor.

VIDEO GAMES

* Age of Empires III: The Asian Dynasties : The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
is featured as the Chinese leader in this real-time strategy game.

NOTES

* ^ He can be viewed as the fourth emperor of the dynasty, depending on whether the dynasty's founder, Nurhaci
Nurhaci
, who used the title of Khan but was posthumously given imperial title, is to be treated as an emperor or not * ^ "Emperor Kangxi - The Emperor Who Reigned for the Longest Period in Chinese History". Cultural China. Retrieved 21 March 2013. * ^ Magill, editor, Larissa Juliet Taylor ; editor, first edition, Frank N. (2006). Great lives from history. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press. ISBN 978-1-58765-222-6 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Rowe (2009) , p. 63. * ^ Note that Xuanye was born in May 1654, and was therefore less than seven years old at the time. Both Spence 2002 and Oxnam 1975 (p. 1) nonetheless claim that he was "seven years old." Dennerline 2002 (p. 119) and Rawski 1998 (p. 99) indicate that he was "not yet seven years old." Following East Asian age reckoning
East Asian age reckoning
, Chinese documents concerning the succession say that Xuanye was eight sui (Oxnam 1975 , p. 62). * ^ Giles 1912 , p. 40. * ^ A B Bennet Peterson. Notable Women of China. p. 328. * ^ Manthorpe 2008, p. 108. * ^ Bergman, Karl (2009), "Tainan Grand Matsu Temple", Tainan City Guide, Tainan: Word Press . * ^ "Tainan Grand Matsu Temple", Chinatownology, 2015 . * ^ SarDesai, D. R. (1988). Vietnam, Trials and Tribulations of a Nation, p. 38 * ^ Gorelova 2002, p. 36. * ^ Cordier & Pelliot 1922 , p. 33. * ^ 不詳 (21 August 2015). 新清史. 朔雪寒. pp. –. GGKEY:ZFQWEX019E4. * ^ H.S. Brunnert; V.V. Hagelstrom (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493–494. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9 . * ^ A B C Mantienne, p. 180 * '^ LES MISSIONS ETRANGERES, P. 83 * ^ Manteigne, p. 178 * ^ "In the Light and Shadow of an Emperor: Tomás Pereira, S.J. (1645–1708), the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
and the Jesuit Mission in China", An International Symposium in Commemoration of the 3rd Centenary of the death of Tomás Pereira, S.J., Lisbon, Portugal and Macau, China, 2008, archived from the original on 2009-08-22 * ^ Neill, S. (1964). A History of Christian Missions, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, pp. 189-l90 * ^ Aldridge, Alfred Owen , Masayuki Akiyama, Yiu-Nam Leung. Crosscurrents in the Literatures of Asia and the West, p. 54 * ^ Li, Dan J., trans. (1969). China in Transition, 1517–1911, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, p. 22 * ^ original words:不法祖德,不遵朕训,惟肆恶虐众,暴戾淫乱 * ^ 明孝陵两大“碑石之谜”被破解 (Solving the two great riddles of the Ming Xiaoling's stone tablets). People's Daily, 13 June 2003. Quote regarding the Kangxi Emperor's stele text and its meaning: "清朝皇帝躬祀明朝皇帝 ... 禦書“治隆唐宋”(意思是讚揚朱元璋的功績超過了唐太宗李世民、宋高祖趙匡胤)" * ^ 吕四娘刺雍正 只是个传说 * ^ Finer (1997), pp. 1134–5 * ^ Spence, The Search for Modern China (2013), pp. 67-68 * ^ Spence, The Search for Modern China (2013), pp. 56-58 * ^ Finer (1997), p. 1142 * ^ Finer (1997), pp. 1156–7 * ^ 章曉文、陳捷先 (2001). 雍正寫真. 遠流出版公司 * ^ 史松 (2009). 雍正研究/满族清代历史文化研究文库. 辽宁民族出版社 * ^ Rubie Sharon Watson (1991). Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society. University of California Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-520-07124-7 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING

* Cordier, Henri; Pelliot, Paul, eds. (1922). T\'oung Pao (通報) or Archives. XX1. Leiden: E.J. Brill. * Dennerline, Jerry (2002), "The Shun-chih Reign", in Peterson, Willard J., Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1: The Ch\'ing Dynasty
Dynasty
to 1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 73–119, ISBN 0-521-24334-3 . * Finer, S. E. (1997). The History of Government from the Earliest Times. ISBN 0-19-822904-6 (three-volume set, hardback) * Bennet Peterson, Barbara (2000). Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty
Dynasty
to the Early Twentieth Century. M.E. Sharpe, Inc. * Giles, Herbert (1912), China and the Manchus, Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press * Gorelova, Liliya M., ed. (2002). Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 8 Uralic & Central Asian Studies, Manchu
Manchu
Grammar. Volume Seven Manchu
Manchu
Grammar. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 9004123075 . Retrieved 6 May 2014. * Oxnam, Robert B. (1975), Ruling from Horseback: Manchu
Manchu
Politics in the Oboi
Oboi
Regency, 1661–1669, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-64244-5 . * Rawski, Evelyn S. (1998), The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-22837-5 . * Rowe, William T. (2009). China\'s Last Empire: The Great Qing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674036123 . * Spence, Jonathan D. (2002), "The K\'ang-hsi Reign", in Peterson, Willard J. (ed.), Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1: The Ch'ing Dynasty
Dynasty
to 1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–82, ISBN 0-521-24334-3 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ). * Kangxi and Jonathan D. Spence (1975). Emperor of China: Self Portrait of K'ang Hsi. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0394714113 . * Ch. 3, "Kangxi's Consolidation," in Jonathan D. Spence, The Search for Modern China (New York: Norton; 3rd, 2013), pp. 48–71. * Zhao, Gang (January 2006). "Reinventing China Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century" (PDF). 32 (Number 1). Sage Publications. JSTOR 20062627 . doi :10.1177/0097700405282349 . Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KANGXI EMPEROR .

Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
HOUSE OF AISIN-GIORO BORN: 4 May 1654 DIED: 20 December 1722

REGNAL TITLES

Preceded by The Shunzhi Emperor EMPEROR OF CHINA 1661–1722 Succeeded by The Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor

* v * t * e

Emperors of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty

* Taizu * Taizong * Dorgon
Dorgon
(Prince Regent) * Shunzhi * Kangxi * Yongzheng * Qianlong * Jiaqing * Daoguang * Xianfeng * Tongzhi * Guangxu * Xuantong

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 12278028 * LCCN : n81111945 * ISNI : 0000 0001 1596 2948 * GND : 118814273 * SELIBR : 192561 * SUDOC : 031242359 * BNF : cb12249589r (data) * NLA : 36730732 * NDL : 00316159 * NCL

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